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Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis: a non-chemical biological assemblage for enhanced plant growth, nodulation and reclamation of degraded soils

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Abstract

Actinorhizal symbiosis naturally harbours beneficial categories of diverse plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs), including the Frankia species. The beneficial microorganisms can be used as efficient, non-chemical and sustainable alternatives for adopting effective soil restoration programmes and revegetation schedules in chemical and industrial-contaminated sites, including treating degraded lands contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides. It has been proposed that the interactions between the microbial gene pool are of immense agricultural significance that would facilitate an improvement in the health, hygiene and nutrient acquisition pathway of native soil. The present review is focused on exploiting the hitherto-unexplored Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis with due interest for their application in soil restoration programmes, including the reclamation of degraded lands. This opens up new insights for the development of sustainability in forestry and plantation research. Additionally, it would promise an improvement in plant growth and vigour, hygiene, and other parameters related to crop yield, such as plant biomass, root/shoot ratio, crop yield, and so on. Novel and putative microorganisms isolated from the actinorhizal may be used for bio-transformation of allelochemicals and toxic heavy metals into compounds with modified biological properties, opening up novel avenues for mediating microbial degradation of putative allelochemicals that would otherwise accumulate at phytotoxic levels in soil. Endophyte-host specificities, the phylogeny of Frankia, and the conservation of unique endemic plant genetic resources like actinorhizal plants, are of paramount significance in the advancement of genomics, metabolomics and phenomics.

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Data Availability

All data is provided in tables and figures.

Abbreviations

ATP:

Adenosine triphosphate

AMF:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

BNF:

Biological nitrogen fixation

CgAUX1 :

Auxin influx carrier

CgRHDF:

The root hair deforming factor

CgNINA:

NIN activating factor

CBD:

The Convention on Biological Diversity

CDMs:

Cellulose degrading microorganisms

ePGPR:

Extracellular plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

ECM:

Ectomycorrhizal

ETC:

Electron transport chain

hbs :

Haemoglobin

IAA:

Indole-3-acetic acid

ISR:

Induction of systematic resistance

iPGPR:

Intracellular plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

GS-GOGAT:

The glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase cycle

KMMs:

Potash mobilising microorganisms

NFs:

Nod factors

NFMs:

Nitrogen fixing microorganisms

PGP traits:

Plant growth promoting traits

PGPMs:

Plant growth promoting microorganisms

PAH:

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon

PSMs:

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

ZSMs:

Zinc solubilising microorganisms

References

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Acknowledgements

For logistics and support, the authors thank the Principal, NNS College, Titabar, Jorhat, Assam, India. PNB and NFI also appreciated the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, for granting research funds for Institutional Biotech Hub (BT/NER/143/SP44344/2021) at NNS College, under NER Biotech Hub Programme.

Funding

No funding was received for conducting this study.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

PNB: Conception and design of the research, initial data collection and compilation, analysis and interpretation of data and preparation of the original draft, revised, formatted and submission.

NFI: Revised the original manuscript, data collection, and formatted.

BS: Data collection and assisted in the preparation of the original draft, revised and formatted.

BCN: Revised the original draft and formatted.

LKTAA: Revised the original draft and data validation.

DL: Revised the original draft and formatted.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pranaba Nanda Bhattacharyya.

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Bhattacharyya, P.N., Islam, N.F., Sarma, B. et al. Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis: a non-chemical biological assemblage for enhanced plant growth, nodulation and reclamation of degraded soils. Symbiosis 92, 1–26 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13199-023-00956-2

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