Nodulation ability in different genotypes of Phaseolus lunatus by rhizobia from California agricultural soils
Phaseolus lunatus is the second economically most important species of the genus Phaseolus. It carries out N fixation through symbiosis with rhizobia. However, it is unclear whether P. lunatus can nodulate with native rhizobia from soils where this legume is not native or was not cultivated previously. Thus, this study assessed the ability of 14 geographically distant lima bean genotypes to nodulate with rhizobia from three California agricultural soils: without a history of legumes or P. lunatus cultivation, with a history of legumes as a cover crop, and with a history of P. lunatus cultivation. Nodulation only occurred on genotypes grown in the soil with a history of P. lunatus planting. The analysis of variance of nodulation traits showed that the genotype effect was highly significant in all the traits measured. Shoot biomass had a higher correlation with nodule size and nodule weight than with nodule number. In addition, shoot biomass and leaf N content were positively correlated with nodule coloration and with nodule position close to the main root of the plant. This study suggests that agricultural soils from California do not appear to have native rhizobia able to nodulate P. lunatus, which suggests the need to inoculate, at least initially, the seeds at planting in order to establish the population of rhizobia. Also, geographically distant lima bean genotypes have different responses to nodulating bacteria and it suggests that future studies to test these genotypes across different environments should be pursued.
KeywordsLima bean N fixation Legumes Bradyrhizobium
The authors thank “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq” (grants PDE Research Fellowship 200484/2014-1 and 201005/2014-0), the California Dry Bean Advisory Board, and the Department of Plant Sciences, UC Davis, for financial support. Thanks for the help in the greenhouse to Steve Silva and Andrew Hutchinson. The authors also would like to thank the valuable reviewers for their comments that helped to improve the manuscript.
- Andueza-Noh RH, Martha L, Serrano-Serrano MI, Chacón Sánchez I, Sanchéz del Pino L, Camacho-Pérez J, Coello-Coello J, Cortes M, Debouck DG, Martínez-Castillo J (2013) Multiple domestications of the Mesoamerican gene pool of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.): evidence from chloroplast DNA sequences. Gen Res Crop Evol 60:1069–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brahmaprakash GP, Sahu PK (2012) A review: biofertilizers for sustainability. J Indian Instit Sci 92:37–62Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Costa Neto VP (2016) Nodulação e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em feijão-fava inoculado com rizóbios isolados de solos da microrregião do Médio Parnaíba Piauiense. Dissertação Mestrado em Agronomia. Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI, Brazil, p 59Google Scholar
- Durán D, Rey L, Mayo J, Zúñiga-Dávila D, Imperial J, Ruiz-Argüeso T, Martínez-Romero E, Ormeño-Orrillo E (2014) Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium icense sp. nov., nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbionts of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in Peru. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:2072–2078CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keeney DR, Nelson DW (1982) Nitrogen-inorganic forms. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 643–698Google Scholar
- Peoples MB, Faizah AW, Rerkasem B, Herridge DF (1989) Methods for evaluating nitrogen fixation by nodulated legumes in the field. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Camberra, Monograph 11, p 76Google Scholar