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Symbiosis

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 9–17 | Cite as

Hypogeous sequestrate fungi in South America – how well do we know them?

  • Marcelo Aloisio SulzbacherEmail author
  • Tine Grebenc
  • Admir José Giachini
  • Iuri Goulart Baseia
  • Eduardo R. Nouhra
Article

Abstract

Collecting and studying hypogeous sequestrate fungi and their particular fruiting biology has always been challenging and intriguing for scientists. However, knowledge of hypogeous taxa has for a long time been limited mainly to the Northern Hemisphere, and more recently, Australia. Nevertheless, cumulative information on sequestrate fungi for South America (SA) has increased considerably over the years, and constitutes by itself, the aim of this review. We have reviewed the available published literature, from 1880 until recent times, to extract information on records, ecology, and morphological characteristics of hypogeous sequestrate fungi from SA. Based on the 172 taxa cited in the available literature, a trend of increasing interest in the study of these fungi in the region is apparent, yet with an uneven distribution among countries, climate belts, and nature of forest habitats. Hypogeous truffle-like species in SA play a key role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles and in all ecosystem multifunctionality. The symbiotic status is provided for most species listed, and mutualism, especially ectomycorrhizal, is predominant (82 %). The hypogeous sequestrate fungi in SA are an understudied group of fungi, with exceptional anatomical and biological features as well as in many cases intriguing phylogenetic relationships, requiring more attention and analysis from mycologists.

Keywords

Ascomycota Basidiomycota Ectomycorrhizal truffle-like species Sequestrate fruit-bodies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dr. James Trappe (Corvallis, Oregon USA) for suggestions and comments and to Jean McCollister for improving the English of the manuscript. This study is a partial result of the Ph.D. thesis of the first author, with a scholarship provided by the Brazilian Government (CAPES scholar, proceeding 99999.004997/2014- 00). E.N. thanks to CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas) for financial support. TG was co-financed by the bilateral cooperation project Slovenia - Brazil No. 490648/2010-0 (CNP) (Brazil)/BI-BR/11-13-005 (Slovenia) and the Research Program in Forest Biology, Ecology and Technology (P4-0107) of the Slovenian Research Agency. Dr. Lorenzo Pecoraro and an anonymous reviewer improved this work with constructive editorial critiques.

Supplementary material

13199_2016_461_MOESM1_ESM.docx (107 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 106 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tine Grebenc
    • 2
  • Admir José Giachini
    • 3
  • Iuri Goulart Baseia
    • 4
  • Eduardo R. Nouhra
    • 5
  1. 1.Departamento de Micologia/CCBUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Slovenian Forestry InstituteLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e ParasitologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Botânica e ZoologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  5. 5.Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET), FCEFyNUniversidad Nacional de CórdobaCórdobaArgentina

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