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Reliability evaluation of mobile ad hoc networks by considering link expiration time and border time


Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configurable, infrastructure-less networks with inherent versatility. The node mobility in these networks leads to frequent changes in network topology because of the formation of new links and cessation of the old ones, thereby, is a possible cause of high packet losses. Despite such daunting challenges, a MANET promises to become ever-present technology and has shown its usefulness in various potential areas of applications. The reliability assessment of such dynamically changing networks is attracting the attention of researchers all over the globe. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo Simulation procedure to evaluate the reliability of a MANET by utilizing the link expiration time and Border Time to determine more precisely the incremental time at which topology change would occur. We also assess the performance of a MANET by varying different scenario metrics, viz., transmission range, number of nodes, coverage area and the number of iterations. The simulated results ensure that the evaluation of reliability of a MANET can be effectively performed by the proposed method.

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\(\theta\) :

Scale parameter of the Weibull failure distribution of the node

\(\beta\) :

Shape parameter of the Weibull failure distribution of the node

\(\left( {\psi , \varphi } \right)\) :

Denotes geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude) in decimal

τ :

Transmission range of mobile node in distance units

\(d_{ij}\) :

Euclidean distance between node \(u_{i}\) and node \(u_{j}\)

nIterations :

Total number of simulation runs

k :

One complete iteration out of nIterations

S :

Source node

D :

Destination node

N :

Number of nodes

N F :

Number of failed nodes

\({\text{ENOF}}\) :

Expected number of failures


Mission time in time-units

\(2TR_{m}\) :

2-Terminal network reliability

\(R_{{2TR_{m} }} \left( t \right)\) :

Reliability of MANET at a particular instant of mission time


Link expiration time


Border time

\(\Delta t\) :

Incremental change in time

[V min, V max]:

Speed range for mobile nodes in km/hr

\(\delta\) :

Direction of node motion in radians

\(A_{N \times N}\) :

Distance matrix

\(CP_{k} \left( t \right)\) :

Network connection probability for iteration \(k\)

\(L_{ij} \left( t \right)\) :

Link presence status between two nodes \(u_{i}\) and node \(u_{j}\)


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The authors would like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers whose valued comments helped to improve the readability and quality of this paper.

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Correspondence to Gaurav Khanna.

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Khanna, G., Chaturvedi, S.K. & Soh, S. Reliability evaluation of mobile ad hoc networks by considering link expiration time and border time. Int J Syst Assur Eng Manag 10, 399–415 (2019).

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  • Connectivity
  • Link expiration time
  • Mobile ad hoc networks
  • Monte Carlo simulation (MCS)
  • Network reliability