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Expected glycemic impact and probiotic stimulating effects of whole grain flours of buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth and chia

Abstract

Chia, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat grains have been widely used in food formulations because of their high and balanced nutritional properties. Since all grains are not equally nutritious, there is a requirement for comparing the health-related effects and processing performance of a variety of whole grains. The expected glycemic index (eGI) flours of chia was determined to be quite low, and flours except quinoa can be classified as low GI foods. The highest resistant starch (RS) content (4.76 g/100 g) was found in amaranth flour, and it was followed by buckwheat (1.27 g/100 g). The amaranth had the highest stimulation effect on the growth of probiotics and increased the count of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum as 4.57 and 2.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. Moreover, chia flour showed a positive effect on the growth of L. acidophilus whereas it negatively affected B. bifidum compared to the control. A significant correlation was detected between rapidly available glucose content and eGI. On the other hand, a significant relationship between RS and the growth rate of probiotics was reported.

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Data availability

Data available on request from authors.

Abbreviations

eGI:

Expected glycemic index

RS:

Resistant starch

WGF:

Whole grain foods

GOPOD:

Glucose oxidase/peroxidase

AUC:

Area under the curve

HI:

Hydrolysis index

RAG:

Rapidly available glucose

SAG:

Slowly available glucose

GG:

Glycemic glucose

MRS:

Man Rogosa sharp broth

CFU:

Colony forming unit

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Acknowledgements

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or sectors.

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CCU, CM and SAT performed experiments; SAT conducted data analysis and write the draft. ME; edited and revised paper.

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Correspondence to Sultan Arslan-Tontul.

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Arslan-Tontul, S., Candal Uslu, C., Mutlu, C. et al. Expected glycemic impact and probiotic stimulating effects of whole grain flours of buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth and chia. J Food Sci Technol 59, 1460–1467 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05156-8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05156-8

Keywords

  • Pseudocereals
  • Glycemic index
  • Resistant starch
  • Probiotic