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Flaxseed oil and palm olein blend to improve omega-6: omega-3 ratio

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Abstract

The objective of the study was to develop the oil blend with improved omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio (ω-6:ω-3) with good oxidative and thermal stability. Flaxseed oil and palm olein were selected for the blending. Flaxseed oil is rich in anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 FA) but is oxidatively very unstable. Palm olein has low omega-6 fatty acid content and high thermal and oxidative stability. Blends containing various percent (v/v) of flaxseed oil and palm olein were prepared. Oxidative and thermal stability was determined by analyzing peroxide value, acid value, smoke point, % free fatty acids, para-Anisidine and TOTOX values. Nutritive quality was confirmed by determining fatty acid composition. Nine month storage stability of the blend containing highest flaxseed oil percentage was assessed in terms of peroxide and acid value and fatty acid composition. The biological effects were studied in THP-1 cell line as the effect on cell survival, FA uptake and inflammatory markers. The data indicates that, blending improved ω-6:ω-3 ratio. Oxidative and thermal stability study, and nine month storage stability study suggested that palm olein imparted stability to the blend. Fatty acid profiles of the cells treated with these blends showed uptake of Alpha Linolenic Acid (ω-3 FA). These blends lowered inflammatory TNFα level without affecting cell survival. Thus, blending of flaxseed oil with palm olein may result in better health benefits owing to their improved nutritional and stability properties.

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All data generated in the present study has been included in the submitted manuscript.

Abbreviations

AA:

Arachidonic acid

ALA:

Alpha-linolenic acid

AOCS:

American oil chemists' society

AV:

Acid Value

BHT:

Butylated hydroxytoluene

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

FO:

Flaxseed oil

DMSO:

Dimethyl sulfoxide

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FBS:

Fetal Bovine Serum

IL-6:

Interleukin-6

LA:

Linoleic acid

LPS:

Lipopolysaccharide

MTT:

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide

OA:

Oleic acid

PA:

Palmitic acid

p-AV:

Para-anisidine value

PO:

Palm olein

PV:

Peroxide value

SP:

Smoke point

TNFα:

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TOTOX value:

Total oxidation value

% FFA:

% Free fatty acid

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Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to Mr. Yogesh S. Badhe and Mr. Pramod D. Farde for assistance in carrying out initial physico-chemical characterization and nine months storage stability study.

Funding

Authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi and Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India for providing the support to conduct the research work.

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Authors

Contributions

AJ—Conducted experiments, analyzed data and drafted of the manuscript, MH—Conceptualization and supervision, AZ—Project monitoring, data curation, review, Resources management and editing of manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anand Zanwar.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Joshi, A., Hegde, M. & Zanwar, A. Flaxseed oil and palm olein blend to improve omega-6: omega-3 ratio. J Food Sci Technol 59, 498–509 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05033-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05033-4

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