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Analysis of furan and monosaccharides in various coffee beans


The furan levels in commercial coffee product samples (17 instant coffees, 12 mixed coffee, 8 canned coffee) were 49–2155, 10–201 and 15–209 ng/g, respectively. Since thermal degradation/rearrangement of carbohydrates is the main source of furan, the concentrations of furan and monosaccharides (mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose) were analysed in 26 green and roasted coffee bean (Coffea arabica) varieties. In coffee beans, furan levels ranged from 4.71 (Bourbon Cerrado, Brazil) to 8.63 mg/kg (San Vicente, Honduras). Galactose was the main monosaccharide in green beans, followed by arabinose, glucose, mannose and rhamnose, on average. Roasting decreased the glucose content by about 81%, and arabinose decreased about 27% in all coffee beans. Glucose decreased the greatest after roasting and is thereby considered the major contributor to the formation of furan.

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This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET 118012031SB010); the Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Research Centre Support Program, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs; and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF 018R1A2B6002634).

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Correspondence to Kwang-Geun Lee.

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Kim, YJ., Choi, J., Lee, G. et al. Analysis of furan and monosaccharides in various coffee beans. J Food Sci Technol 58, 862–869 (2021).

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  • Furan
  • Coffee
  • Monosaccharide
  • Coffee bean variety
  • Commercial coffee product