Droplet size, polydispersity, physical and polymorphic stability of milk fat nanoemulsions produced by hot high-pressure homogenization and stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI pH 4.0 or 7.0) or sodium caseinate (NaCas pH 7.0) were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 25 °C. Smaller droplets were observed for the NaCas pH 7.0 nanoemulsion, which also showed a lower polydispersity index, resulting in a stable emulsified system for 60 days. On the other hand, the nanoemulsion with bigger droplet size (WPI pH 4.0) showed reduced stability, probably due to the pH near the isoelectric point of the whey proteins. The nanostructured milk fat exhibited the same melting behavior as the bulk milk fat, with a balance between liquid and crystallized fat, and crystals in polymorphic form β′. This could be an advantage concerning the application of the system for delivery of bioactive compounds and improvement of the sensory properties of fat-based food. In summary, nanoemulsions stabilized by NaCas (pH 7.0) showed higher kinetic stability over the storage time, which from a technological application point of view is a very important factor in the food industry.
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The authors thank Arla Foods for the donation of whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate, and Fonterra Ltda for the donation of anhydrous milk fat. We also acknowledge the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for Granting the Ph.D. scholarship (140529/2015-2) and the Unicamp Student Support Service (SAE) for granting the scientific initiation scholarship. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001.
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de Souza Queirós, M., Viriato, R.L.S., Vega, D.A. et al. Milk fat nanoemulsions stabilized by dairy proteins. J Food Sci Technol 57, 3295–3304 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04362-0
- Whey protein
- Sodium caseinate
- Physical properties