In this research, antioxidant activity of Pistacia atlantica var mutica (a wild type of pistachio in Iran) kernel oil (PAKO) and unsaponifiable matters of kernel oil (UKO) were compared with those of sesame seed oil (SSO) and rice bran oil (RBO) as well as with their unsaponifiable matters (USO and UBO) and α-tocopherol (natural antioxidant) was selected as control. Also, some chemical properties such as (FRAP, DPPH radical-scavenging, rancimat and oven assays (peroxide value and carbonyl value) were assessed. The amount of unsaponifiable matters of studied oils was between 1.4 and 3.5%. The highest total phenolics was observed in SSO (1024 mg/kg), followed by RBO, and PAKO was 174, and 75 mg/kg, respectively. In DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the EC50 values of PAKO, SSO, RBO, UKO, USO, UBO, and α-tocopherol were determined as 38.9, 50, 48.4, 14, 12.7, 15.9 and 61.4 mg/mL, respectively. In FRAP assay, the highest value was nominated for UKO (434 mmol/L); followed by USO, UBO, PAKO, SSO, RBO and α-tocopherol (404, 357, 364, 298, 210 and 58 mmol/L; respectively). Also, considering the results of oven test, the incorporation of UKO into pure sunflower oil resulted in the highest oxidative stability; followed by UBO, USO, PAKO, SSO, RBO and α-tocopherol. According to results of the rancimat test, the incorporation of unsaponifiable matters (UKO, USO, and UBO) resulted in the highest oil/oxidative stability index (OSI) in pure sunflower oil, followed by oils studied (PAKO, SSO, and RBO). According to results, UKO had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by USO, UBO, PAKO, SSO, RBO, and α-tocopherol.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abuzaytoun R, Shahidi F (2006) Oxidative stability of flax and hemp oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:855–861
Asnaashari M, Hashemi SMB, Mahdavian Mehr HM, Asadi Yousefabad SH (2015) Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) hull oil and kernel oil as antioxidative vegetable oils with high oxidative stability and nutritional value. Food Technol Biotechnol 53:81–86
Berker KI, Gülü K, Demirata B, Apak R (2010) A novel antioxidant assay of ferric reducing capacity measurement using ferrozine as the colour forming complexation reagent. Anal Methods 2:1770–1778
Casarotti SN, Jorge N (2012) Antioxidant activity of rosemary extract in soybean oil under thermoxidation. J Food Process Pres 38:136–145
Ching Man Cheung S, Tong Szeto Y, Benzie IFF (2007) Antioxidant protection of edible oils. Plant Food Hum Nutr 62:39–42
Dong S, Zhang R, Ji YC, Hao JY, Ma WW, Chen XD, Yu HL (2016) Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial. Nutr Res 36:879–884
Dong D, Dong M, Liu K, Lu Y, Yu B (2017) Antioxidant activity of queen bee larvae processed by enzymatic hydrolysis. J Food Process Pres 42:1–9
Farhoosh R, Moosavi SMR (2006) Determination of carbonyl value in rancid oils: a critical reconsideration. J Food Lipids 13:298–305
Farhoosh R, Tavakoli J, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2008) Chemical composition and oxidative stability of kernel oils from two current subspecies of Pistacia atlantica in Iran. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:723–729
Farhoosh R, Tavassoli-Kafrani MH, Sharif A (2011a) Antioxidant activity of sesame, rice bran and bene hull oils and their unsaponifiable matters. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113:506–512
Farhoosh R, Tavassoli-Kafrani MH, Sharif A (2011b) Antioxidant activity of the fractions separated from the unsaponifiable matter of bene hull oil. Food Chem 126:583–589
Frankel EN (2005) Lipid oxidation, 2nd edn. The Oily Press Ltd, Dundee
Gohari Ardebili A, Farhoosh R, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2010) Frying stability of canola oil in presence of pumpkin seed and olive oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112:871–878
Gouvinhas I, Machado J, Gomes S, Lopes J, Martins-Lopes P, Barros A (2014) Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of monovarietal and commercial portuguese olive oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 91:1197–1203
Gunstone FD (2005) Vegetable oils. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 1–31
Hashemi SMB, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Koubaa M, Lopez-Cervantes J, Yousefabad SHA, Hosseini SF, Asadifard S (2017) Novel edible oil sources: microwave heating and chemical properties. Food Res Int 92:147–153
Hashemi SMB, Khaneghah AM, Koubaa M, Barba FJ, Abedi E, Niakousari M, Tavakoli J (2018) Extraction of essential oil from Aloysia citriodora Palau leaves using continuous and pulsed ultrasound: kinetics, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties. Process Biochem 65:197–204
Kedare SB, Singh RP (2011) Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay. J Food Sci Technol 48(4):412–422
Kochhar SP (2000) Stabilisation of frying oils with natural antioxidative components. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 102:552–559
Noorali M, Barzegar M, Sahari MA (2016) Antioxidant compounds of Iranian olive oils influenced by growing area, ripening stage, and cultivar. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:1–5
Ojeda-Amador RM, Fregapane G, Salvador MD (2018) Composition and properties of virgin pistachio oils and their by-products from different cultivars. Food Chem 240:123–130
Ribas SA, Sichieri R, Moreira ASB, Souza DO, Cabral CTF, Gianinni DT, Cunha DB (2017) Phytosterol-enriched milk lowers LDL-cholesterol levels in Brazilian children and adolescents: double-blind, cross-over trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 27:971–977
Shahidi F, Zhong Y (2005) Lipid oxidation: measurement methods. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 370–373
Sharayei P, Farhoosh R, Poorazarang H, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2011a) Effect of bene kernel oil on the frying stability of canola oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 88:648–654
Sharayei P, Farhoosh R, Poorazarang H, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2011b) Improvement of canola oil frying stability by bene kernel oil’s unsaponifiable matter. J Am Oil Chem Soc 88:993–1000
Srivastava Y, Dutt Semwal A (2013) A study on monitoring of frying performance and oxidativestability of virgin coconut oil (VCO) during continuous/prolonged deep fat frying process using chemical and FTIR spectroscopy. Food Sci Technol 52:981–984
Tasan M, Demirci M (2005) Total and individual tocopherol contents of sunflower oil at different steps of refining. Eur Food Res Technol 220:251–254
Tavakoli J, Sorbi N (2017) Fortification of refined soybean oil by hull oil of two Iranian wild pistachios: improving thermal stability during frying process. Int J Food Prop 20:1–14
Tavakoli J, Hamedani F, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2016) Investigating chemical properties and oxidative stability of kernel oil from Pistacia khinjuk growing wild in Iran. J Am Oil Chem Soc 93:681–687
Tavakoli J, Estakhr P, Zarei Jelyani A (2017a) Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil. Food Sci Technol 54:2980–2988
Tavakoli J, Rashidi MJ, Hashemi SMB (2017b) Evaluating antioxidative activity of the peel of Cucurbita pepo cultivated in two areas of Mazandaran, Iran. Curr Nutr Food Sci 13:319–322
Tavakoli J, Emadi T, Hashemi SMB, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Munekata PES, Lorenzo JM, Brnčić M, Barbah FJ (2018a) Chemical properties and oxidative stability of Arjan (Amygdalus reuteri) kernel oil as emerging edible oil. Food Res Int 107:378–384
Tavakoli J, Hashemi SMB, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Barba FJ, Amorati R, Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Amarowicz A (2018b) Improving the frying performance and oxidative stability of refined soybean oil by tocotrienol-rich unsaponifiable matters of Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) hull oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 95:619–628
Wanasundara PKJPD, Shahidi F (2005) Antioxidants: science, technology and applications. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 431–489
Watkins BA, Li Y, Hennig B, Toborek M (2005) Dietary lipids and health. In: Shahidi F (ed) Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 577–600
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in writing upon submission of the manuscript.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tavakoli, J., Hajpour Soq, K., Yousefi, A. et al. Antioxidant activity of Pistacia atlantica var mutica kernel oil and it’s unsaponifiable matters. J Food Sci Technol 56, 5336–5345 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04004-0
- Pistacia atlantica var mutica kernel oil
- Antioxidant properties
- Unsaponifiable compounds
- Oil stability
- Antioxidant compounds