The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of tumbling time on the processing characteristics of soy sauce marinated pork loins, and to compare its efficacy at two different tumbling temperatures. In experiment I, pork loins (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were pumped to 115% (w/w) of original sample weight with soy sauce solution (75%, w/w) and tumbled for 0, 1, 3, and 5 h. In experiment II, the soy sauce pumped pork loins were tumbled at two different temperatures (− 1 and 4 °C) for 4 h. The pH, color characteristics, water-holding capacity, protein solubility, and shear force of pork loins tumbled with soy sauce marinade were determined. An increase in tumbling time increased the cooked pH and yellowness of soy sauce marinated pork loins (p < 0.05). Protein solubility, particularly that of total and salt-soluble proteins, increased with increasing tumbling time (p < 0.05), and a tumbling time of at least 3 h may guarantee excellent water-holding capacity and shear force. In addition, low tumbling temperature of − 1 °C could positively contribute to the improvement of water-holding capacity and shear force of soy sauce marinated pork loins. In conclusion, this current study indicates that the efficacy of tumbling in soy sauce marination of pork loins is affected by tumbling time and temperature, moreover, tumbling at − 1 °C for at least 3 h could be an effective method in the experimental operating condition.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
AMSA (2012) Meat color measurement guidelines. American Meat Science Association, Champaign, IL
Aoshima H, Ooshima S (2009) Anti-hydrogen peroxide activity of fish and soy sauce. Food Chem 112:339–343
Boles JA, Shand PJ (2002) Tumbling regime effects on the processing characteristics and tenderness of cooked roast beef. J Muscle Food 13:25–35
Cassidy RD, Ockerman HW, Krol B, Von Roon PS, Plimpton RF, Cahill VR (1978) Effect of tumbling method, phosphate level, and final cook temperature on the histological characteristic of tumbled porcine muscle tissue. J Food Sci 43:1514–1518
Dzudie T, Okubanjo A (1999) Effects of rigor state and tumbling on quality of goat hams. J Food Eng 42:103–107
Font-i-Furnols M, Guerrero L (2014) Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview. Meat Sci 98:361–371
Forrest JC, Aberle ED, Hedrick HB, Judge MD, Merkel RA (1975) Principles of meat science. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, CA
Gao T, Li J, Zhang L, Jiang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Gao F, Zhou G (2015a) Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops. Food Sci Technol 35:445–451
Gao T, Li J, Zhang L, Jiang Y, Yin M, Liu Y, Gao F, Zhou G (2015b) Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 28:1020–1027
Gornall AG, Bardawill CJ, David MM (1949) Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction. J Biol Chem 177:751–766
Grau R, Hamm R (1953) Eine einfache methode zur bestimmung der wasserbindung im muskel. Naturwissenschaften 40:29–30
Heo J, Lee J (2017) US consumers’ acceptability of soy sauce and bulgogi. Food Sci Biotechnol 26:1271–1279
Hullberg A, Johansson L, Lundström K (2005) Effect of tumbling and RN genotype on sensory perception cured-smoked pork loin. Meat Sci 69:721–732
Joo ST, Kauffman RG, Park GB (1999) The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle. Meat Sci 52:291–297
Kargiotou C, Katsanidis E, Rhoades J, Kontominas M, Koutsoumanis K (2011) Efficacies of soy sauce and wine base marinades for controlling spoilage of raw beef. Food Microbiol 28:158–163
Kataoka S (2005) Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components. J Biosci Bioeng 100:227–234
Kim SY, Choi JH, Choi YS, Kim HY, Ahn KI, Kim HW, Kim TH, Song DH, Kim CJ (2012) Effects of low-temperature tumbling on the quality characteristics of restructured chicken breast ham. Korean J Food Sci An 32:268–273
Kim HW, Choi YS, Choi JH, Kim HY, Hwang KE, Song DH, Lee SY, Lee MA, Kim CJ (2013a) Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage. Meat Sci 95:641–646
Kim HW, Choi YS, Choi JH, Kim HY, Lee MA, Hwang KE, Song DH, Lim YB, Kim CJ (2013b) Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris. Food Chem 139:597–603
Kim HW, Hwang KE, Song DH, Kim YJ, Lim YB, Choi JH, Choi YS, Kim HY, Kim CJ (2014) Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast. Poult Sci 93:680–686
Knipe CL, Plimpton RF, Ockerman HW (1981) Effect of tumbling and tumbling temperature on total aerobic plate counts (incubated at 25 °C) and quality of boneless, cured hams. J Food Sci 46:212–215
Li C, Szczepaniak S, Steen L, Goemaere O, Impens S, Hubert P, Zhou G (2011) Effect of tumbling time and cooking temperature on quality attributes of cooked ham. Int J Food Sci Technol 46:2159–2163
Nam KC, Jo C, Lee MH (2010) Meat products and consumption culture in the East. Meat Sci 86:95–102
Neyrinck E, Telleir D, Fraeye I, Paelinck H, Raes K (2015) Impact of tumbling time on protein characteristics during cooked ham production. In: 61st international congress of meat science and technology, Clermont-Ferrand, France. pp 204-207
Pietrasik Z, Shand PJ (2004) Effect of blade tenderization and tumbling time on the processing characteristics and tenderness of injected cooked roast beef. Meat Sci 66:871–879
Zeng W, Wen W, Deng Y, Tian Y, Sun H, Sun Q (2016) Chinese ethnic meat products: continuity and development. Meat Sci 120:37–46
This research was supported (PJ00923704013) by the Rural Development Administration. This work was also partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2017R1C1B5076663).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Kim, SY., Song, DH., Ham, YK. et al. Efficacy of tumbling in soy sauce marination of pork loins: effects of tumbling time and temperature. J Food Sci Technol 56, 5282–5288 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03997-y
- Pork loin
- Protein solubility
- Soy sauce