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Valorizing cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) wastes: in vitro health-promoting activities


The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are common wastes generated in the vegetable processing industry. We explored the in vitro health-promoting activity of these waste products for valorization. Freeze-dried and pulverized cabbage wastes had a high bile acid binding capacity and the capsicum wastes inhibited glucose dialysis more effectively. Methanolic extracts prepared with conventional solvent extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were analyzed to determine their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, in vitro α-amylase inhibitory, in vitro lipase inhibitory, and prebiotic activity. Crude extracts of cabbage and capsicum wastes were screened using GC–MS analysis. The cabbage waste extracts showed high antioxidant activities but did not inhibit α-amylase. The capsicum waste extracts inhibited both lipase and α-amylase activities and supported the growth of the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacilli brevis. Volatile compounds of the vegetables consisted mainly of phenols and fatty acid esters. In all assays except the α-amylase inhibition assay, the extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction showed higher activity than those prepared using the conventional method. The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are potential sources of phytochemicals and antioxidant fibers. Capsicum waste extract supported probiotic bacterial growth without a lag phase. These waste products may be processed into high-value functional ingredients.

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Fig. 1
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Bile acid binding capacity


Dietary fiber



EC50 :

The effective concentration of the sample extracts to scavenge half of the free radicals in the mixture (EC50)


Glucose dialysis retardation index


de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe


Solvent extraction/extracted


Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction/extracted


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This study was supported by Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia through the internal grant IPSR/RMC/UTARRPS/2017/75. We thank Veg Station (M) Sdn. Bhd. for supplying the cabbage outer leaves and capsicum seed core.

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Correspondence to Ying Ping Chang.

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Liang, J.L., Yeow, C.C., Teo, K.C. et al. Valorizing cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) wastes: in vitro health-promoting activities. J Food Sci Technol 56, 4696–4704 (2019).

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  • Cabbage
  • Capsicum
  • In vitro health-promoting activities
  • Valorizing
  • Wastes