Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1134–1144 | Cite as

Pearl millet based pasta: optimization of extrusion process through response surface methodology

  • Kirti JalgaonkarEmail author
  • S. K. Jha
  • Manoj Kumar Mahawar
  • Deep Narayan Yadav
Original Article


This study investigated the influence of extrusion operating condition [barrel temperature (BT) (50–90 °C), feed moisture content (FM) (25–35%, w.b.), feeder speed (FS) (8–16 rpm) and screw speed to feeder speed ratio (SS:FS) (8–12)] on quality of pearl millet pasta [cooking time (CT), cooking loss (CL), hydration capacity (HC), swelling capacity (SC), hardness, springiness (SP), chewiness (CH) through response surface methodology (CCRD design)]. The results indicated that raising BT and FM reduced CT, CL, but increased HC, SC, hardness, SP, CH of pearl millet based pasta. HC, SC, hardness, SP and CH of pasta were increased as FS and SS:FS increased, whereas, CT and CL showed decreasing trend. The optimum operating conditions for pear millet based pasta was obtained at BT of 70 °C, FM of 30% (w.b.), FS of 12 rpm and SS:FS ratio of 10 with low CT (≤ 5.25 min), CL (≤ 7.45%) and high HC (≥ 2.30 g g−1), SC (≥ 3.14 ml g−1), good hardness (≥ 11.11 N), SP (≥ 1.24 N) and CH (≥ 6.09 N mm).


Pasta Pearl millet Extrusion Response surface methodology 



The first author is thankful for the financial funding (INSPIRE fellowship) received from Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (Grant No. 10401). NAE (Niche Area of Excellence) project of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is also duly acknowledged for providing facilities.


  1. AACC (2003) Approved methods of the AACC, 10th edn. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  2. Abecassis J, Abbou R, Chaurand M, Morel MH, Vernoux P (1994) Influence of extrusion conditions on extrusion speed, temperature and pressure in the extruder and on pasta quality. Cereal Chem 71(3):247–253Google Scholar
  3. Abecassis J, Autran JC, Feillet P (2000) Durum wheat, semolina and pasta quality: recent achievements and new trends. Editions Quae, Montpellier, p 42Google Scholar
  4. Akdogan H (1996) Pressure, torque, and energy responses of a twin screw extruder at high moisture contents. Food Res Int 29:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2016) Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Govt. of India. Accessed 12 April 2016
  6. Bagdi A, Szabo F, Gere A, Kokai Z, Sipos L, Tomoskozi S (2014) Effect of aleurone-rich flour on composition, cooking, textural, and sensory properties of pasta. LWT Food Sci Technol 59:996–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman C, Gualberto D, Weber C (1994) Development of high-temperature dried soft wheat macaroni supplemented with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Cooking quality, colour and sensory evaluation. Cereal Chem 71:523–527Google Scholar
  8. BIS 1485 (2010) Macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and egg noodles-specification. Second revision. Bureau of Indian Standards, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. Carvalho CWP, Mitchell JR (2000) Effect of sugar on the extrusion of maize grits and wheat flour. Int J Food Sci Technol 35:569–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de la Pena E, Manthey FA (2017) Effect of formulation and dough hydration level on extrusion, physical and cooked qualities of nontraditional spaghetti. J Food Eng 40:1–12Google Scholar
  11. De Noni I, Pagani MA (2010) Cooking properties and heat damage of dried pasta as influenced by raw material characteristics and processing conditions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Debbouz A, Doetkott C (1996) Effect of process variables on spaghetti quality. Cereal Chem 73:672–676Google Scholar
  13. D’Egidio MG, De Stefanis E, Fortini S, Galterio G, Nardi S, Sgrulletta D, Bozzini A (1982) Standardization of cooking quality analysis in macaroni and pasta products. Cereal Foods World 27:367–368Google Scholar
  14. D’Egidio MG, Mariani BM, Nardi S, Novaro P, Cubadda R (1990) Chemical and technological variables and their relationships: a predictive equation for pasta cooking quality. Cereal Chem 67:275–281Google Scholar
  15. Donnelly BJ, Ponte JG (2000) Pasta: raw materials and processing. In: Kulp K, Ponte JG (eds) Handbook of cereal science and technology, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 647–665Google Scholar
  16. Feillet P, Dexter JE (1996) Quality requirement of durum wheat for semolina milling and pasta production. In: Kruger JE, Matsuo RR, Dick JW (eds) Pasta and noodle technology. AACC International, St. Paul, pp 95–131Google Scholar
  17. Galvez FCF, Resurreccion AVA (1992) Reliability of the focus group technique in determining the quality characteristics of mungbean [Vigna radiate (L.) (Wilczec)] noodles. J Sens Stud 7:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gimenez MA, Gonzalez RJ, Wagner J, Torres R, Lobo MO, Samman NC (2013) Effect of extrusion conditions on physicochemical and sensorial properties of corn-broad beans (Vicia faba) spaghetti type pasta. Food Chem 136:538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gopalakrishnan J, Menon R, Padmaja G, Sanjeev MS, Moorthy SN (2011) Nutritional and functional characteristics of protein-fortified pasta from sweet potato. Food Nutr Sci 2:944–955Google Scholar
  20. Gopalan C, Rama Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SC (2004) Nutritive value of Indian foods, 2nd edn. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad, p 47Google Scholar
  21. Guo G, Jackson DS, Graybosch RA, Parkhurst AM (2003) Wheat tortilla quality: impact of amylose content adjustments using waxy wheat flour. Cereal Chem 80:427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hagenimana A, Ding X, Fang T (2006) Evaluation of rice flour modified by extrusion cooking. J Cereal Sci 43:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ilo S, Tomschik U, Berghofer E, Mundigler N (1996) The effect of extrusion operating conditions on the apparent viscosity and the properties of extrudates in twin-screw extrusion cooking of maize grits. LWT Food Sci Technol 29:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jalgaonkar K, Jha SK (2016) Influence of particle size and blend composition on quality of wheat semolina–pearl millet pasta. J Cereal Sci 71:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jalgaonkar K, Jha SK, Mahawar MK (2018) Influence of die size and drying temperature on quality of pearl millet based pasta. Int J Chem Stud 6(6):979–984Google Scholar
  26. Kaur P, Singh N, Pal P, Kaur A (2018) Traditional and improved paddy varieties: composition, protein, pasting, and gluten-free chapati making properties. Cereal Chem 95:666–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lamacchia C, Di Luccia A, Baiano A, Gambacorta G, La Gatta B, Pati S, La Notte E (2007) Changes in pasta proteins induced by drying cycles and their relationship to cooking behaviour. J Cereal Sci 46:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawton BT, Hendeson BA, Derlatka EJ (1972) The effects of extruder variables on the gelatinization of corn starch. Can J Chem Eng 50:168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Limroongreungrat K, Huang YW (2007) Pasta products made from sweet potato fortified with soy protein. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lintas CD, Appolonia BD (1973) Effect of spaghetti processing on semolina carbohydrates. Cereal Chem 50:563–570Google Scholar
  31. Manthey FA, Yalla SR, Dick TJ, Badaruddin M (2004) Extrusion properties and cooking quality of spaghetti containing buckwheat bran flour. Cereal Chem 81:232–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Medvedev GM, Malandeeva NI, Kovalskaja LP (1987) Changes in the properties of the component of dough for pasta during its thermal processing. Tecnica Molitoria 38:796–874Google Scholar
  33. Meng X, Threinen D, Hansen M, Driedger D (2010) Effects of extrusion conditions on system parameters and physical properties of a chickpea flour based snack. Food Res Int 43:650–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Milatovic L, Mondelli G (1991) Pasta technology today. Chiriotti Editori, PineroloGoogle Scholar
  35. Nasehi B, Mortazavi SA, Razavi SM, Tehrani MM, Karim R (2009) Effects of processing variables and full fat soy flour on nutritional and sensory properties of spaghetti using a mixture design approach. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nwabueze TU, Anoruoh GA (2011) Evaluation of flour and extruded noodles from eight cassava mosaic disease (CMD)-resistant varieties. Food Bioprocess Technol 4:80–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pagani MA, Resmini P, Dalbon G (1989) Influence of the extrusion process on characteristics and structure of pasta. Food Microstruct 8:173–182Google Scholar
  38. Petitot M, Brossard V, Barron C, Larre C, Morel MH, Micard V (2009) Modification of pasta structure induced by high drying temperatures. Effects on the in vitro digestibility of protein and starch fractions and the potential allergenicity of protein hydrolysates. Food Chem 116:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sozer A, Dalgic AC, Kaya A (2007) Thermal, textural and cooking properties of spaghetti enriched with resistant starch. J Food Eng 81:476–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Van Den Einde R, Van Der Goot A, Boom R (2003) Understanding molecular weight reduction of starch during heating-shearing processes. J Food Sci 68:2396–2404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Walsh DE, Ebeling KA, Dick JW (1971) A linear programming approach to spaghetti processing. Cereal Sci Today 16:385–389Google Scholar
  42. Wang N, Bhirud PR, Sosulski FW, Tyler RT (1999) Pasta-like product from pea flour by twin-screw extrusion. J Food Sci 64(4):671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang N, Maximiuk L, Toews R (2012) Pea starch noodles: effect of processing variables on characteristics and optimization of twin-screw extrusion process. Food Chem 133:742–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wojtowicz A (2006) Influence of extrusion parameters on some texture characteristics of precooked semolina pasta. Acta Agrophys 8:1049–1060Google Scholar
  45. Wojtowicz A (2012) Influence of process conditions on selected texture properties of precooked buckwheat pasta. TEKA Comm Mot Energ Agric 12:315–322Google Scholar
  46. Wojtowicz A, Moscicki L (2008) Energy consumption during extrusion cooking of precooked pasta. TEKA Kom Mot Energ Roln OL PAN 8:311–318Google Scholar
  47. Yadav DN, Balasubramanian S, Kaur J, Anand T, Singh AK (2014a) Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate. J Food Sci Technol 51(10):2592–2599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yadav DN, Sharma M, Chikara N, Anand T, Bansal S (2014b) Quality characteristics of vegetable-blended wheat pearl millet composite pasta. Agric Res 3:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yeh AI, Jaw YM (1999) Effects of feed rate and screw speed on operating characteristics and extrudate properties during single-screw extrusion cooking of rice flour. Cereal Chem 76:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Horticultural Crop ProcessingICAR-CIPHETAboharIndia
  2. 2.Division of Food Science and Post-Harvest TechnologyICAR-IARINew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Food Grain and Oilseed ProcessingICAR-CIPHETLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations