Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 2488–2496 | Cite as

Chemo-profiling of anthocyanins and fatty acids present in pomegranate aril and seed grown in Indian condition and its bioaccessibility study

  • Anindita Paul
  • Kaushik Banerjee
  • Arnab Goon
  • Supradip Saha
Original Article


The goal of the present study was to investigate the bioactive molecules (anthocyanins and fatty acids) present in the aril of pomegranate. Major anthocyanins present in the aril of pomegranate were identified by HRMS as delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside. In-vitro study revealed that bioaccessibility of anthocyanin in duodenal condition was varied between 7.3 and 9.7%. Encapsulation enhances the bioaccessibility of both the phenolics to some extent in gastric as well as duodenal condition. Seed oil contains significant amount of unsaturated fatty acids especially ω-5 fatty acids. Geometrical isomers of ω-5 fatty acids were also identified by GC–MS. The spray dried anthocyanin formulation has potential for food application.


Pomegranate aril Seed Anthocyanins HRMS characterization Spray drying Bioaccessibility 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support and facilities provided by the Head, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi and National Research Centre for Grape, Pune.

Supplementary material

13197_2018_3166_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1600 kb)


  1. Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Mukhtar H (2005) Anthocyanin-and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-κB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Int J Cancer 113:423–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alighourchi H, Barzegar M, Abbasi S (2008) Anthocyanins characterization of 15 Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their variation after cold storage and pasteurization. Eur Food Res Technol 227:881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobrich A, Fanning KJ, Rychlik M, Russell D, Topp B, Netzel M (2014) Phytochemicals in Japanese plums: impact of maturity and bioaccessibility. Food Res Int 65:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouayed J, Hoffmann L, Bohn T (2011) Total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion and dialysis of apple varieties: bioaccessibility and potential uptake. Food Chem 128:14–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai YZ, Corke H (2000) Production and properties of spray-dried amaranthus betacyanin pigments. J Food Sci 65:1248–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrillo C, Buve C, Panozzo A, Grauwet T, Hendrickx M (2017) Role of structural barriers in the in vitro bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in comparison with carotenoids. Food Chem 227:271–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. De Vos RC, Moco S, Lommen A, Keurentjes JJ, Bino RJ, Hall RD (2007) Untargeted large-scale plant metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Nat Protoc 2:778–791CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Diaz Sanchez F, Santos Lopez EM, Filardo Kerstupp S, Villag omez Ibarra R, Scheinvar L (2006) Colorant extraction from red prickly pear (Opuntia lasiacantha) for food application. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 5(2):1330–1337Google Scholar
  9. Du CT, Wang PL, Francis FJ (1975) Anthocyanins of pomegranate, Punica granatum. J Food Sci 40(2):417–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fadavi A, Barzegar M, Azizi MH (2006) Determination of fatty acids and total lipid content in oilseed of 25 pomegranates varieties grown in Iran. J Food Compos Anal 19(6):676–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fawole OA, Opara UL (2013) Effects of maturity status on biochemical content, polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate fruit arils (cv. “Bhagwa”). S Afr J Bot 85:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fischer UA, Carle R, Kammerer DR (2011) Identification and quantification of phenoliccompounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MSn. Food Chem 127(2):807–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ (2002) Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure–activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 13:572–584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hertog MGL, van Poppel G, Verhoeven D (1997) Potentially anticarcinogenic secondary metabolites from fruit and vegetables. In: Tomás Barberán FA, Robins RJ (eds) Phytochemistry of fruit and vegetables. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 313–329Google Scholar
  15. Hornung E, Pernstich C, Feussner I (2002) Formation of conjugated D11 D13-double bonds by D12-linoleic acid (1,4)-acyl-lipid-desaturase in pomegranate seeds. Eur J Biochem 269:4852–4859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Idham Z, Muhamad II, Sarmidi MR (2012) Degradation kinetics and color stability of spray-dried encapsulated anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa l. J Food Process Eng 35(4):522–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamiloglu S, Pasli AA, Ozcelik B, Van Camp J, Capanoglu E (2015) Colour retention, anthocyanin stability and antioxidant capacity in black carrot (Daucus carota) jams and marmalades: effect of processing, storage conditions and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. J Funct Foods 13:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaufman M, Wiesman Z (2007) Pomegranate oil analysis with emphasis on MALDI-TOF/MS triacylglycerol fingerprinting. J Agric Food Chem 55:10405–10413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Liang L, Wu X, Zhao T, Zhao J, Li F, Zou Y, Mao G, Yang L (2012) In vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion. Food Res Int 46(1):76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lipinski CA, Lombardo F, Dominy BW, Feeney PJ (2012) Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahdavi SA, Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, Dehnad D (2016) Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin. Int J Biol Macromol 85:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 79:727–747CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McDougall GJ, Dobson P, Smith P, Blake A, Stewart D (2005) Assessing potential bioavailability of raspberry anthocyanines using an in vitro digestion system. J Agric Food Chem 53:5896–5904CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Melgarejo P, Salazar DM, Artes F (2000) Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. Eur Food Res Technol 211:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michel T, Khlif I, Kanakis P, Termentzi A, Allouche N, Halabalaki M, Skaltsounis AL (2015) UHPLC-DAD-FLD and UHPLC-HRMS/MS based metabolic profiling and characterization of different Olea europaea organs of Koroneiki and Chetoui varieties. Phytochem Lett 11:424–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nagao K, Yanagita T (2005) Conjugated fatty acid in foods and their health benefits. J Biosci Bioeng 100:152–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nijdam JJ, Langrish TAG (2006) The effect of surface composition on the functional properties of milk powders. J Food Eng 77(4):919–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Özgül-Yücel S (2005) Determination of conjugated linolenic acid content of selected oil seeds frown in Turkey. J Am Oil Chem Soc 82:893–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pradhan PC, Saha S (2016) Anthocyanin profiling of Berberis lycium Royle berry and its bioactivity evaluation for its nutraceutical potential. J Food Sci Tech 53(2):1205–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ribnicky DM, Roopchand DE, Oren A, Grace M, Poulev A, Lila MA, Havenaar R, Raskin I (2014) Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1). Food Chem 142:349–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Riffault L, Destandau E, Pasquier L, André P, Elfakir C (2014) Phytochemical analysis of Rosa hybrida cv. ‘Jardin de Granville’ by HPTLC, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-HRMS: polyphenolic fingerprints of six plant organs. Phytochem 99:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robert P, Gorena T, Romero N, Sepulveda E, Chavez J, Saenz C (2010) Encapsulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate (Punica granatum) by spray drying. Int J Food Sci Technol 45(7):1386–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saenz C, Tapia S, Chavez J, Robert P (2009) Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). Food Chem 114:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Salerno R, Casale F, Calandruccio C, Procopio A (2016) Characterization of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) polyphenolic fraction by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS). Pharma Nutr 4:S1–S7Google Scholar
  35. Sarkar R, Kundu A, Banerjee K, Saha S (2018) Anthocyanin composition and potential bioactivity of karonda (Carissa carandas) L. fruit: An Indian source of biocolorant. LWT Food Sci Tech.
  36. Saura-Calixto F, Serrano J, Goni I (2007) Intake and bioaccessibility of total polyphenols in a whole diet. Food Chem 101(2):492–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sengul H, Surek E, Nilufer-Erdil D (2014) Investigating the effects of food matrix and food components on bioaccessibility of pomegranate (Punica granatum) phenolics and anthocyanins using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Food Res Int 62:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Serafini M, Bellocco R, Wolk A, Ekstrom AM (2002) Total antioxidant potential of fruit and vegetables and risk of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 123:985–991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Sun J, Xiao Z, Lin LZ, Lester GE, Wang Q, Harnly JM, Chen P (2013) Profiling polyphenols in five Brassica species microgreens by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn. J Agric Food Chem 61(46):10960–10970CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Suzuki R, Noguchi R, Ota T, Abe M, Miyashita K, Kawada T (2001) Cytotoxic effect of conjugated trienoic fatty acids in mouse tumor and human monocytic leukemia cells. Lipids 36:477–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Takagi T, Itabashi Y (1981) Occurrence of mixtures of geometrical isomers of conjugated octadecatrienoic acids in some seed oils: analysis by open-tubular gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Lipids 16:546–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Takagi T, Itabashi Y (1982) cis-5-Olefinic unusual fatty acids in seed lipids of gymnospermae and their distribution in triacylglycerols. Lipids 17:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tonon RV, Brabet C, Hubinger MD (2008) Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of açai (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) powder produced by spray drying. J Food Eng 88(3):411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Agricultural ChemicalsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Referral LaboratoryICAR-National Research Center for GrapesPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations