Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 2410–2419 | Cite as

Effect of freeze, microwave-convective hot air, vacuum and dehumidified air drying on total phenolics content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) pulp

  • Indira Dey Paul
  • Madhusweta Das
Original Article


Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) pulp-skin paste was dried using four drying methods viz., microwave-convective hot air drying (MCD), freeze drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), and dehumidified air drying (DAD) at different conditions. Except for FD, the drying temperatures of MCD (1, 2 and 3 W/g power density), VD (60, 160 and 260 mm Hg pressure) and DAD (1, 1.5 and 2 m/s of air velocity; 20% RH) were varied from 40 to 70 °C. The dried pulp-skin flakes were analysed for total phenolics content [TPC, gallic acid equivalent (GAE)], monomeric anthocyanin content [MAC, malvidin-3-glucoside (M3G)] and antioxidant activity [AA, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)]. This study aimed on selection of the best drying method based on the retention of the above functionalities. Compared to the fresh sample, TPC and AA of the dried samples increased for all the methods, whereas MAC showed mixed response. With the retention of 31.52 mg GAE, 11.99 mg M3G and 28.63 mg BHA per gram of dried sample (on dry basis), MCD (70 °C, 1 W/g) was selected as the most suitable method based on statistical analyses


Syzygium cumini Freeze drying Microwave-convective hot air drying Vacuum drying Dehumidified air drying 


  1. Aghilinategh N, Rafiee S, Hosseinpour S, Omid M, Mohtasebi SS (2015) Optimization of intermittent microwave–convective drying using response surface methodology. Food Sci Nutr 3(4):331–341CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Akyıldız A, Aksay S, Benli H, Kıroğlu F, Fenercioğlu H (2004) Determination of changes in some characteristics of persimmon during dehydration at different temperatures. J Food Eng 65(1):95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amakura Y, Umino Y, Tsuji S, Tonogai Y (2000) Influence of jam processing on the radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in berries. J Agric Food Chem 48(12):6292–6297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arslan D, Özcan MM (2010) Study the effect of sun, oven and microwave drying on quality of onion slices. LWT Food Sci Technol 43(7):1121–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beldjazia A, Alatou D (2016) Precipitation variability on the massif Forest of Mahouna (North Eastern-Algeria) from 1986 to 2010. IJMSBR 5(3):21–28Google Scholar
  6. Busso Casati C, Baeza R, Sanchez V, Catalano A, Lopez P, Zamora MC (2015) Thermal degradation kinetics of monomeric anthocyanins, colour changes and storage effect in elderberry juices. J Berry Res 5(1):29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Busso Casati C, Baeza R, Sanchez V (2017) Comparison of the kinetics of monomeric anthocyanins loss and colour changes in thermally treated blackcurrant, maqui berry and blueberry pulps from Argentina. J Berry Res 7(2):85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carunchia M, Wang L, Han JH (2015) The use of antioxidants in the preservation of snack foods. In: Shahidi F (ed) Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, No.276, Elsevier, United Kingdom, pp 447–474Google Scholar
  9. Chauhan A, Tanwar B, Intelli (2015) Influence of processing on physic-chemical, nutritional and phytochemical composition of Ficus carica (fig) fruit. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 6(6):1474–1489Google Scholar
  10. Cortez R, Luna-Vital DA, Margulis D, de Mejia EG (2017) Natural pigments: stabilization methods of anthocyanins for food applications. Compr Rev Food Sci F 16(1):180–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Santana RF, Neto ERO, Santos AV, Soares CMF, Lima AS, Cardoso JC (2015) Water sorption isotherm and glass transition temperature of freeze-dried Syzygium cumini fruit (jambolan). J Therm Anal Calorim 120(1):519–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Estupiñan DC, Schwartz SJ, Garzón GA (2011) Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content, anthocyanin, and color stability of isotonic model beverages colored with Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) anthocyanin powder. J Food Sci 76(1):S26–S34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Forbes-Hernandez TY, Gasparrini M, Afrin S, Bompadre S, Mezzetti B, Quiles JL, Giampieri F, Battino M (2016) The healthy effects of strawberry polyphenols: which strategy behind antioxidant capacity? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:S46–S59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Mazzoni L, Forbes-Hernandez TY, Gasparrini M, Gonzalez-Paramas AM, Santos-Buelga C, Quiles JL, Bompadre S, Mezzetti B, Battino M (2014) An anthocyanin-rich strawberry extract protects against oxidative stress damage and improves mitochondrial functionality in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an oxidizing agent. Food Funct 5(8):1939–1948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Güclü K, Altun M, Özyürek M, Karademir SE, Apak R (2006) Antioxidant capacity of fresh, sun-and sulphited-dried Malatya apricot (Prunus armeniaca) assayed by CUPRAC, ABTS/TEAC and folin methods. Int J Food Sci Technol 41(1):76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Howard LR, Brownmiller C, Mauromoustakos A, Prior RL (2016) Improved stability of blueberry juice anthocyanins by acidification and refrigeration. J Berry Res 6(2):189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoxha L, Kongoli R (2016) Influence of drying process on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of two different autochthonous Albanian fig varieties. Sci Pap Ser A Agron 59:509–514Google Scholar
  18. İzli G (2017) Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 37(1):139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jebitta SR, Allwin SJ (2016) Antioxidant activity, total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of jamun (Syzygium cumini) pulp powder. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 9(2):361–363Google Scholar
  20. Madrau MA, Piscopo A, Sanguinetti AM, Del Caro A, Poiana M, Romeo FV, Piga A (2009) Effect of drying temperature on polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of apricots. Eur Food Res Technol 228(3):441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manganaris GA, Goulas V, Vicente AR, Terry LA (2014) Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits. J Sci Food Agric 94(5):825–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mazzoni L, Perez-Lopez P, Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Gasparrini M, Forbes-Hernandez TY, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M (2016) The genetic aspects of berries: from field to health. J Sci Food Agric 96(2):365–371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Orjuela-Palacio JM, Lanari MC (2016) The impact of moisture sorption properties on the color and bioactives concentrations of black currant-yerba mate instant drinks. J Berry Res 6(3):303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Periyathambi R (2007) Jamun-the potential untapped. Horticulture 1:30–32Google Scholar
  25. Prior RL, Sintara M, Chang T (2016) Multi-radical (ORACMR5) antioxidant capacity of selected berries and effects of food processing. J Berry Res 6(2):159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Que F, Mao L, Fang X, Wu T (2008) Comparison of hot air-drying and freeze-drying on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) flours. Int J Food Sci Tech 43(7):1195–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rababah TM, Ereifej KI, Howard L (2005) Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits. J Agric Food Chem 53(11):4444–4447CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Routray W, Orsat V, Gariepy Y (2014) Effect of different drying methods on the microwave extraction of phenolic components and antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry leaves. Dry Technol 32(16):1888–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Santhalakshmy S, Bosco SJD, Francis S, Sabeena M (2015) Effect of inlet temperature on physicochemical properties of spray-dried jamun fruit juice powder. Powder Technol 274:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sehwag S, Das M (2014) Nutritive, therapeutic and processing aspects of Jamun, Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels—an overview. Indian J Natl Prod Res 5(4):295–307Google Scholar
  31. Sengkhamparn N, Chanshotikul N, Assawajitpukdee C, Khamjae T (2013) Effects of blanching and drying on fiber rich powder from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) peel. Int Food Res J 20(4):1595–1600Google Scholar
  32. Shahnawaz M, Sheikh SA (2008) Analytical description on stickiness, shelf life and colour of Jamun (Eugenia jambolana L.) fruit powder. Pak J Agric Agric Eng Vet Sci 24(1):44–47Google Scholar
  33. Sonawane SK, Arya SS (2015) Effect of drying and storage on bioactive components of jambhul and wood apple. J Food Sci Technol 52(5):2833–2841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Soong YY, Barlow PJ (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds. Food Chem 88(3):411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vuthijumnok J, Molan AL, Heyes JA (2013) Effect of freeze-drying and extraction solvents on the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of different Rabbiteye blueberry genotypes grown in New Zealand. IOSR-JPBS 8:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wojdyło A, Figiel A, Lech K, Nowicka P, Oszmiański J (2014) Effect of convective and vacuum–microwave drying on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant capacity of sour cherries. Food Bioprocess Technol 7(3):829–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Food EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurWest MidnaporeIndia

Personalised recommendations