Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 2130–2142 | Cite as

Pulverizing processes affect the chemical quality and thermal property of black, white, and green pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

  • Hong Liu
  • Jie Zheng
  • Pengzhan Liu
  • Fankui Zeng
Original Article


In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques. The use of cryogenic grinding to prepare pepper ensured the highest quality of pepper products. Regardless of grinding technique, the values of moisture, piperine, unsaturated fatty acids, essential oil, monoterpenes, and the absolute concentrations of typical pepper essential oil constituents (except caryophyllene oxide) decreased, whereas the amino acid, lipid, protein, starch, and non-volatile ether extract content as well as the thermal properties were insignificantly changed after storage at 4 °C for 6 months.


Pulverizing processes Essential oil composition Amino acid Fatty acid composition Thermo-gravimetric analysis 



Black pepper ground by cryogenic grinding


Black pepper ground by hammer milling


White pepper ground by cryogenic grinding


White pepper ground by hammer milling


Green pepper ground by cryogenic grinding


Green pepper ground by hammer milling



The authors gratefully acknowledge the state-operated Dongchang farm in Hainan, China for providing black, white and green peppercorns, and acknowledge Mr. Huang and Mr. Shao at National Institute of Metrology P.R. China for providing the cryogenic grinding and hammer milling for the study. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Liu
    • 1
  • Jie Zheng
    • 2
  • Pengzhan Liu
    • 3
  • Fankui Zeng
    • 4
  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu ProvinceLanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and EngineeringJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Food Science and EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Research and Development Center for Eco-Material and Eco-ChemistryLanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

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