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Preparation of antinutrients-reduced dhokla using response surface process optimisation

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Abstract

Dhokla, a popular indigenous savoury dish of India, is prepared by soaking bengalgram dal and rice, grinding separately, mixing the batters, and spontaneously fermenting and steaming of mixed batter. Central composite rotatable response surface designs for soaking, fermentation and steaming at five-level combinations were used for optimising preparation of dhokla to achieve reduced contents of antinutrients. Optimum soaking of bengalgram dal (dal–water ratio of 1:5 w/w, pH 7.0, 23 °C, 20 h) and rice (rice–water ratio of 1:5 w/w, pH 5.6, 16 °C, 18 h) resulted in reduced levels of all the antinutrients, except total biogenic amines in rice. Fermentation of dal–rice (3:1 v/v) mixed batter under optimum condition (added NaCl of 8 g/kg, 32 °C, 18 h) further reduced their levels, but total biogenic amines content was enhanced. However, optimum steaming of dal–rice mixed fermented batter for 20 min was effective in reducing all the tested antinutrients. In dhokla, the content of tannins, phytic acid and total biogenic amines reduced by 100, 94 and 20%, respectively; trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinating activities reduced by 92 and 100%, respectively, over raw ingredients. The optimally prepared product (dhokla) ranked “excellent” in terms of overall sensory quality.

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Abbreviations

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

CCRD:

Central composite rotatable design

HA:

Haemagglutinating activity

LAB:

Lactic acid bacteria

PAC:

Phytic acid content

RSM:

Response surface methodology

TA:

Titratable acidity

TAMB:

Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria

TBAC:

Total biogenic amines content

TC:

Tannins content

TIA:

Trypsin inhibitor activity

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Grant, F.3–4/2013 (SAP-II), from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India.

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Correspondence to Prabir K. Sarkar.

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Sharma, A., Kumari, S., Nout, M.J.R. et al. Preparation of antinutrients-reduced dhokla using response surface process optimisation. J Food Sci Technol 55, 2048–2058 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3119-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3119-9

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