Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1685–1694 | Cite as

Effects of different packaging materials and methods on the physical, biochemical and sensory qualities of lettuce

  • Jung-Soo Lee
  • Dulal Chandra


In order to maintain the qualities at postharvest stages, Korean red leaf lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tojong-mats) were packaged with different films or perforations such as perforated polypropylene with 1320 small-sized holes (PPP-1320-hole), perforated polypropylene with 4 large-sized holes (PPP-4-hole), non-perforated polypropylene (Non-PPP), non-perforated polypropylene with anti-fogging properties (Anti-Fog-PP) or without packaging (control) and stored at 10 °C up to 16 days. Minimum water loss was observed in both non-perforated films (< 3%) compared to 35% in control at the end of storage. Significant increase in CO2 and simultaneous decline in O2 concentration were recorded in both non-perforated films. A gradual decline in hue angle (h°) and SPAD (Soil–Plant Analyses Development) chlorophyll meter values was found in all samples during storage while the color difference (ΔE*) values showed opposite trend. However, Anti-Fog-PP treatment exhibited the least ΔE* values throughout the storage. The contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and total chlorophyll (total Chl), decreased gradually in all cases with a comparatively higher declines in Non-PPP treatment on 6 days, in PPP-4-hole treatment both on 12 and 16 days. Anti-Fog-PP treatment exhibited the lowest chlorophyll degradation and least changes in anthocyanin content until the end of storage. Lettuces received scores for maintaining marketable limits up to 2, 4, 6, 12 and 16 days under control, PPP-1320-hole, PPP-4-hole, Non-PPP and Anti-Fog-PP packaging treatments, respectively. Results indicated that Anti-Fog-PP treatment could provide better postharvest qualities along with extended marketable life for about 2 weeks during storage at market display temperature.


Chlorophyll Color Lettuce Packaging film Quality Storage 



The second author gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Republic of Korea received through the Postdoctoral Fellowship Program for foreign researcher.


  1. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banerjee A, Chatterjee S, Variyar PS, Sharma A (2016) Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation. J Food Sci Technol 53:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ben-Yohoshua S (1985) Individual seal packaging of fruits and vegetables in plastic films. A postharvest technique. Hort Sci 20:32–37Google Scholar
  4. Cameron AC, Talasila PC, Joles DJ (1995) Predicting the film permeability needs for modified-atmosphere packaging of lightly processed fruits and vegetables. Hort Sci 30:25–34Google Scholar
  5. Chandra D, Choi AJ, Kim YP, Kim JG (2015) Physicochemical, microbial and sensory quality of fresh-cut red beetroots in relation to sanitization method and storage duration. Ital J Food Sci 27:208–222Google Scholar
  6. Chitravathi K, Chauhan OP, Raju PS (2015) Influence of modified atmospheric packaging on shelf life of green chillies. Food Packag Shelf Life 4:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chubachi T, Asano I, Oikawa T (1986) The diagnosis of nitrogen nutrition of rice plants (sasanishiki) using chlorophyll meter. Soil Sci Plant Nutri 57:190–193Google Scholar
  8. Cretescu I, Caprita R, Velicevici G, Dorin C, Sirbu C, Buzamat G, Ropciuc S (2014) Researches regarding the influence of cold storage on the chlorophyll content in lettuce. Sci Pap Anim Sci Biotechnol 47:162–166Google Scholar
  9. Esturk O, Yakar Y, Ayhan Z (2014) Pesticide residue analysis in parsley, lettuce and spinach by LC-MS/MS. J Food Sci Technol 51:458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrante A, Maggiore T (2007) Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements to evaluate storage time and temperature of Valeriana leafy vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 45:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferrante A, Incrocci L, Maggini R, Serra G, Tognoni F (2004) Colour changes of fresh-cut leafy vegetables during storage. J Food Agric Env 2:40–44Google Scholar
  12. Ferrante A, Incrocci L, Serra G (2008) Quality changes during storage of fresh-cut or intact Swiss chard leafy vegetables. J Food Agric Environ 6:60–62Google Scholar
  13. Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE (2001) Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by uv-visible spectroscopy. Curr Protoc Food Anal Chem F1.2.1-F1.2.13.
  14. Jaime P, Saltveit ME (2002) Postharvest changes in broccoli and lettuce during storage in argon, helium, and nitrogen atmospheres containing 2% oxygen. Postharvest Biol Technol 26:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jeong M, An DS, Ahn GH, Lee DS (2013) Master packaging system for sweet persimmon applicable to produce supply chains. Postharvest Biol Technol 86:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiang L, Hou TY, Yuan XY, Jiang J, Yu ZF (2010) Effect of storage temperature and packaging method on the decay and physiology of fresh leaves of Gynura bicolor D.C. J Food Process Preserv 34:858–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim JG, Luo Y, Gross KC (2004) Effect of packaging film on the quality of fresh-cut salad savoy. Postharvest Biol Technol 32:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kolton A, Wojciechowska R, Długosz-Grochowska O, Grzesiak W (2014) The storage ability of lamb’s lettuce cultivated in the greenhouse under LED or HPS lamps. J Hort Res 22:159–165Google Scholar
  19. Lee JH (2008) Extending shelf-life of leaf lettuce using active packaging. J Food Tech 6:14–19Google Scholar
  20. Lee JS, Chung DS, Lee JU, Lim BS, Lee Y, Chun C (2007) Effects of cultivars and storage temperatures on shelf-life of leaf lettuces. Korean J Food Preserv 14:345–350 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  21. Lee JS, Lee HE, Lee YS, Chun C (2008) Effect of packaging methods on the quality of leaf lettuce. Korean J Food Preserv 15:630–634 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  22. Leon AP, Vina SZ, Frezza D, Chaves A, Chiesa A (2007) Estimation of chlorophyll contents by correlations between SPAD-502 meter and chromameter in butterhead lettuce. Commun Soil Sci Plant Analy 38:2877–2885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lers A, Jiang WB, Lomaniec E, Aharoni N (1998) Gibberellic acid and CO2 additive effect in retarding postharvest senescence of parsley. J Food Sci 63:66–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu X, Ardo S, Bunning M, Parry J, Zhou K, Stushnoff C, Stoniker F, Yu L, Kendall P (2007) Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in Colorado. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:552–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Llorach R, Martínez-Sánchez A, Tomás-Barberán FA, Gil MI, Ferreres F (2008) Characterisation of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of five lettuce varieties and escarole. Food Chem 108:1028–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma BL, Morrison MJ, Voldeng HD (1995) Leaf greenness and photosynthetic rates in soybean. Crop Sci 35:1411–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mampholo BM, Sivakumar D, Beukes M, van Rensburg WJ (2013) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality and bioactive compounds of Chinese cabbage (Brasicca rapa L. ssp. chinensis). J Sci Food Agric 93:2008–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manolopoulou E, Varzakas T (2016) Effect of temperature in color changes of green vegetables. Curr Res Nutri Food Sci 4(SI. 2): 10-17 Web.
  29. Nunes MCN, Villeneuve S, Emond JP (1999) Retail display conditions affects quality of broccoli florets. Paper no. 277 Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Refrigeration IIR/IIF SydneyGoogle Scholar
  30. Opara UL, Mditshwa A (2013) A review on the role of packaging in securing food system: adding value to food products and reducing losses and waste. Afr J Agric Res 8:2621–2630Google Scholar
  31. Peppelenbos HW, van’t Leven J (1996) Evaluation of four types of inhibition for modeling the influence of carbon dioxide on oxygen consumption of fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 7:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peryea FJ, Kammereck R (1997) Use of Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to quantify the effectiveness of mid-summer trunk injection of iron on chlorotic pear trees. J Plant Nutri 20:1457–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richardson AD, Duigan SP, Berlyn GP (2002) An evaluation of noninvasive methods to estimate foliar chlorophyll content. New Phytol 153:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rizzo V, Muratore G (2009) Effects of packaging on shelf life of fresh celery. J Food Eng 90:124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roura SI, Davidovich LA, Valle CE (2000) Quality loss in minimally processed Swiss chard related to amount of damaged area. LWT Food Sci Technol 33:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saltveit ME (1997) A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for harvested vegetables. In: Salviet ME (ed) Proceedings of the 7th International controlled atmosphere research conference Vol. 4. Vegetables and ornamentals, University of California, Davis, pp 98–117Google Scholar
  37. Saltveit ME (2016) Lettuce. In: Gross KC, Chien YW, Saltveit M (eds) The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. Agriculture Handbook 66, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC, pp 386-389Google Scholar
  38. Shimokawa K, Shimada S, Yaeo K (1978) Ethylene-enhanced chlorophyllase activity during degreening of Citrus unshiu Marc. Sci Hort 8:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh JP, Kaur A, Shevkani K, Singh N (2016) Composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of common Indian fruits and vegetables. J Food Sci Technol 53:4056–4066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Soltani M, Alimardani R, Mobli H, Mohtasebi SS (2016) Modified atmospheric packaging: a progressive technology for shelf life extension of fruits and vegetables. J Appl Packag Res 8:33–59Google Scholar
  41. Toivonen PMA, Brummell DA (2008) Biochemical bases of appearance and texture changes in fresh-cut and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 48:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang Q, Chen J, Stamps RH, Li Y (2005) Correlation of visual quality grading and SPAD reading of green-leaved foliage plants. J Plant Nutri 28:1215–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yamauchi N, Watada AE (1991) Regulated chlorophyll degradation in spinach leaves during Storage. J Am Soc Hort Sci 116:58–62Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Postharvest Technology DivisionNational Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development AdministrationWanju-gunSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureBangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural UniversitySalna, GazipurBangladesh

Personalised recommendations