Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1632–1640 | Cite as

Effect of fiber sources on fatty acids profile, glycemic index, and phenolic compound content of in vitro digested fortified wheat bread

  • Marcin Andrzej Kurek
  • Jarosław Wyrwisz
  • Sabina Karp
  • Agnieszka Wierzbicka
Original Article


In this study, some dietary fiber (DF) sources were investigated as fortifiers of wheat bread: oat (OB), flax (FB), and apple (AB). Adding oat and flax fibers to bread significantly changed the fatty acid profiles. OB was highest in oleic acid (33.83% of lipids) and linoleic acid (24.31% of lipids). Only in FB, γ-linolenic fatty acid was present in a significant amount—18.32%. The bioaccessibility trails revealed that the DF slow down the intake of saturated fatty acids. PUFA were least bioaccessible from all fatty acids groups in the range of (72% in OB to 87% in FB). The control bread had the greatest value (80.5) and was significantly higher than values for OB, FB, and AB in terms of glycemic index. OB, FB and AB addition led to obtain low glycemic index. AB had a significant highest value of total phenolic (897.2 mg/kg) with the lowest values in FB (541.2 mg/kg). The only significant lowering of caloric values in this study was observed in AB. The study could address the gap in the area of research about taking into consideration glycemic index, fatty acid profile and phenolic content in parallel in terms of DF application in breads.


Dietary fiber Fatty acids GC Wheat bread 


  1. Altunkaya A, Hedegaard RV, Brimer L et al (2013) Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder. Food Funct 4:722–772. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aro H, Järvenpää E, Mäkinen J et al (2013) The utilization of oat polar lipids produced by supercritical fluid technologies in the encapsulation of probiotics. LWT Food Sci Technol 53:540–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bchir B, Rabetafika HN, Paquot M, Blecker C (2014) Effect of pear, apple and date fibres from cooked fruit by-products on dough performance and bread quality. Food Bioprocess Technol 7:1114–1127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calderelli VAS, de Benassi MT, Visentainer JV, Matioli G (2010) Quinoa and flaxseed: potential ingredients in the production of bread with functional quality. Braz Arch Biol Technol 53:981–986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chareonthaikij P, Uan-On T, Prinyawiwatkul W (2016) Effects of pineapple pomace fibre on physicochemical properties of composite flour and dough, and consumer acceptance of fibre-enriched wheat bread. Int J Food Sci Technol 51:1120–1129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen J, Raymond K (2008) Beta-glucans in the treatment of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks. Vasc Health Risk Manag 4:1265–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conforti FD, Davis SF (2006) The effect of soya flour and flaxseed as a partial replacement for bread flour in yeast bread. Int J Food Sci Technol 41:95–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahl WJ, Lockert EA, Cammer AL, Whiting SJ (2005) Effects of flax fiber on laxation and glycemic response in healthy volunteers. J Med Food 8:508–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Angelis M, Damiano N, Rizzello CG et al (2009) Sourdough fermentation as a tool for the manufacture of low-glycemic index white wheat bread enriched in dietary fibre. Eur Food Res Technol 229:593–601. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrer-Mairal A, Peñalva-Lapuente C, Iglesia I et al (2012) In vitro and in vivo assessment of the glycemic index of bakery products: influence of the reformulation of ingredients. Eur J Nutr 51:947–954. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Filipovic N, Djuric M, Gyura J (2007) The effect of the type and quantity of sugar-beet fibers on bread characteristics. J Food Eng 78:1047–1053. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gamel TH, Abdel-Aal ESM, Tosh SM (2014) Effect of yeast-fermented and sour-dough making processes on physicochemical characteristics of β-glucan in whole wheat/oat bread. LWT Food Sci Technol 60:78–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gervais R, Gagnon F, Kheadr EE, Van Calsteren MR, Farnworth ER, Fliss I, Chouinard PY (2009) Bioaccessibility of fatty acids from conjugated linoleic acid-enriched milk and milk emulsions studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Int Dairy J 19:574–581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giaretta D, Lima VA, Carpes ST (2017) Improvement of fatty acid profile in breads supplemented with Kinako flour and chia seed. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. Google Scholar
  15. Gökmen V, Mogol BA, Lumaga RB et al (2011) Development of functional bread containing nanoencapsulated omega-3 fatty acids. J Food Eng 105:585–591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goñi I, Garcia-Alonso A, Saura-Calixto F (1997) A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutr Res 17:427–437. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ibrügger S, Kristensen M, Mikkelsen MS, Astrup A (2012) Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake. Appetite 58:490–495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jung J, Cavender G, Zhao Y (2015) Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products. J Food Sci Technol 52:5568–5578. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurek MA, Wyrwisz J, Karp S, Wierzbicka A (2017) Particle size of dietary fiber preparation affects the bioaccessibility of selected vitamin B in fortified wheat bread. J Cereal Sci 77:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lowcock EC, Cotterchio M, Boucher B (2013) Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control 24:813–816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marpalle P, Sonawane SK, LeBlanc JG, Arya SS (2015) Nutritional characterization and oxidative stability of α-linolenic acid in bread containing roasted ground flaxseed. LWT Food Sci Technol 61:510–515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McCleary BV (2014) Modification to AOAC official methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch. J AOAC Int 97:896–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meral R, Dogan IS (2013) Quality and antioxidant activity of bread fortified with flaxseed. Ital J Food Sci 25:51–56Google Scholar
  24. Minekus M, Alminger M, Alvito P et al (2014) A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food—an international consensus. Food Funct 5:1113–1124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moraes ÉA, Dantas MIDS, Morais DDC et al (2010) Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of cakes prepared with whole flaxseed flour. Ciência e Tecnol Aliment 30:974–979. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris C, Lynn A, Neveux C et al (2015) Impact of bread making on fructan chain integrity and effect of fructan enriched breads on breath hydrogen, satiety, energy intake. PYY and ghrelin. Food Funct 6:2561–2567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nielsen KL, Hartvigsen ML, Hedemann MS, Lærke HN, Hermansen K, Bach Knudsen KE (2014) Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study. Am J Clin Nutr 99:941–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panahi S, Ezatagha A, Jovanovski E et al (2014) Glycemic effect of oat and barley beta-glucan when incorporated into a snack bar: a dose escalation study. J Am Coll Nutr 33:442–449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Piwińska M, Wyrwisz J, Kurek M, Wierzbicka A (2015) Hydration and physical properties of vacuum-dried durum wheat semolina pasta with high-fiber oat powder. LWT Food Sci Technol 63:647–653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Regand A, Chowdhury Z, Tosh SM et al (2011) The molecular weight, solubility and viscosity of oat beta-glucan affect human glycemic response by modifying starch digestibility. Food Chem 129:297–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rendón-Villalobos R, Agama-Acevedo E, Osorio-Diaz P, Tovar J, Bello-Pérez LA (2009) Proximal composition and in vitro starch digestibility in flaxseed-added corn tortilla. J Sci Food Agric 89:537–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reshmi SK, Sudha ML, Shashirekha MN (2017) Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments. Food Chem 237:957–965. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ribeiro LF, Peralta-Zamora PG, Maia BHLNS et al (2013) Prediction of linolenic and linoleic fatty acids content in flax seeds and flax seeds flours through the use of infrared reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate calibration. Food Res Int 51:848–854. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sabanis D, Lebesi D, Tzia C (2009) Effect of dietary fibre enrichment on selected properties of gluten-free bread. LWT Food Sci Technol 42:1380–1389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Samout N, Bouzenna H, Dhibi S, Ncib S, ElFeki A, Hfaiedh N (2016) Therapeutic effect of apple pectin in obese rats. Biomed Pharmacother 83:1233–1238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sęczyk Ł, Świeca M, Dziki D, Anders A, Gawlik-Dziki U (2017) Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls. Food Chem 214:32–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sudha ML, Baskaran V, Leelavathi K (2007) Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food Chem 104:686–692. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sui X, Zhang Y, Zhou W (2016) Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility. Food Chem 196:910–916. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tabesh F, Sanei H, Jahangiri M et al (2014) The effects of beta-glucan rich oat bread on serum nitric oxide and vascular endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Biomed Res Int. Google Scholar
  40. Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TMS (2014) Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 100:1413–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolter A, Hager A-S, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2013) In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycaemic indexes of buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum, teff and commercial gluten-free bread. J Cereal Sci 58:431–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yılmaz İ, Dağlıoğlu O (2003) The effect of replacing fat with oat bran on fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of meatballs. Meat Sci 65:819–823. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang N, Huang C, Ou S (2011) In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid. J Hazard Mater 186:236–239. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhou LJ, Wu H, Li JT et al (2012) Determination of fatty acids in broiler breast meat by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Meat Sci 90:658–664. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcin Andrzej Kurek
    • 1
  • Jarosław Wyrwisz
    • 1
  • Sabina Karp
    • 1
  • Agnieszka Wierzbicka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Technique and Food Development, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer SciencesWarsaw University of Life SciencesWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations