Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 13, pp 4205–4212 | Cite as

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminum-induced anemia, elevation of inflammatory makers and hepato-renal toxicity

  • Meryem Bakour
  • Noori S. Al-Waili
  • Nawal El Menyiy
  • Hamada Imtara
  • Anna Cristina Figuira
  • Thia Al-Waili
  • Badiaa Lyoussi
Original Article


Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees’ enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (500 mg/kg b.wt), and group 4: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (750 mg/kg b.wt). Doses were given once daily via a gavage. C-reactive protein, transaminases, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium and urine sodium and potassium were determined on day 28 of the experiment. Bee bread contained protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, phenol and flavonoids and it exhibited antioxidant activity. Aluminum caused a significant elevation of blood urea, transaminase, C-reactive protein and monocyte count and significantly decreased hemoglobin. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the use of bee bread. Bee bread has an antioxidant property, and exhibited a protective effect on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity and elevation of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, leukocyte and monocyte counts.


Bee bread Aluminum Toxicity Anemia Antioxidant C-reactive protein Transaminase 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meryem Bakour
    • 1
  • Noori S. Al-Waili
    • 2
  • Nawal El Menyiy
    • 1
  • Hamada Imtara
    • 1
  • Anna Cristina Figuira
    • 3
  • Thia Al-Waili
    • 2
  • Badiaa Lyoussi
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology and Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El MehrazUniversity Sidi Mohamed Ben AbdallahFezMorocco
  2. 2.New York Medical Care for NephrologyRichmond HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food Engineering, Institute of EngineeringUniversity of the AlgarveFaroPortugal

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