Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 727–734 | Cite as

Chemical composition and biological properties of Satureja avromanica Maroofi

  • Elham Abdali
  • Shima Javadi
  • Maryam Akhgari
  • Seyran Hosseini
  • Dara Dastan
Original Article


Satureja avromanica is an indigenous plant which is frequently used as a spice in Avraman-Kurdistan region of Iran. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the S. avromanica. In addition, rosmarinic acid and total phenolic content of S. avromanica was assessed by spectrophotometric method and HPTLC. The essential oil and methanolic extract were isolated by hydrodistillation and maceration methods, respectively. A total of 32 compounds representing 98.6% of the essential oil were identified by GC–MS and GC–FID. The main constituents were n-pentacosane (23.8%), spathulenol (11.5%), β-bourbonen (11.3%) and n-docosane (11.0%). The antibacterial activity of samples were carried out by disc diffusion method and evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) essential oil and methanolic extract were found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus. The highest scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract of S. avromanica (21.58 µg/mL) and the total phenolics of methanolic extract of S. avromanica was 95.3 mg GAE/g. The rosmarinic acid content of S. avromanica methanolic extract was 0.83 mg/g plant. Antioxidant activity and rosmarininc acid content of S. avromanica suggests that the essential oil and methanolic extract of S. avromanica has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent to preserve food.


Satureja avromanica Spice Antimicrobial Antioxidant Essential oil Rosmarinic acid 


  1. Adams RP (2001) Identification of essential oils by gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol StreamGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi F, Sadeghi S, Modarresi M, Abiri R, Mikaeli A (2010) Chemical composition, in vitro anti-microbial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Hymenocrater longiflorus Benth., of Iran. Food Chem Toxicol 48:1137–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azaz AD, Kürkcüoglu M, Satil F, Can Baser KH, Tümen G (2005) In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some Satureja essential oils. Flavour Frag J 20:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behravan J, Ramezani M, Kasaian J, Sabeti Z (2004) Antimycotic activity of the essential oil of Satureja mutica Fisch and CA Mey from Iran. Flavour Frag J 19:421–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burt SA, Reinders RD (2003) Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157: H7. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cakir A, Kordali S, Kilic H, Kaya E (2005) Antifungal properties of essential oil and crude extracts of Hypericum linarioides Bosse. Biochem Syst Ecol 33:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dastan D, Salehi P, Gohari AR, Ebrahimi SN, Aliahmadi A, Hamburger M (2014) Bioactive sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula pseudalliacea. Planta Med 80:1118–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ebrahimi S, Kiyanpour V, Hadian J, Salehi P, Asghari B (2008) Determination of rosmarinic acid content in some Iranian Satureja species by HPTLC. Planta Med 74:PC101Google Scholar
  9. Eftekhar F, Raei F, Yousefzadi M, Ebrahimi SN, Hadian J (2009) Antibacterial activity and essential oil composition of Satureja spicigera from Iran. Z Naturforsch C 64:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elmastaş M, Gülçin İ, Beydemir Ş, İrfan Küfrevioğlu Ö, Aboul-Enein HY (2006) A study on the in vitro antioxidant activity of juniper (Juniperus communis L.) fruit extracts. Anal Lett 39:47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esmaeili MA, Sonboli A, Noushabadi MA (2010) Antioxidant and protective properties of six Tanacetum species against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in K562 cell line: A comparative study. Food Chem 121:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Falsafi T, Moradi P, Mahboubi M, Rahimi E, Momtaz H, Hamedi B (2015) Chemical composition and anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge essential oil. Phytomedicine 22:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farsam H, Amanlou M, Radpour M, Salehinia A, Shafiee A (2004) Composition of the essential oils of wild and cultivated Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad from Iran. Flavour Frag J 19:308–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao C, Tian C, Lu Y, Xu J, Luo J, Guo X (2011) Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds against selected food-related bacteria. Food Control 22:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghahremani-majd H, Dashti F, Dastan D, Mumivand H, Hadian J, Esna-Ashari M (2012) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Iranian mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) populations. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 53:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghorbanpour M, Hadian J, Hatami M, Salehi-Arjomand H, Aliahmadi A (2016) Comparison of chemical compounds and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of various Satureja species growing wild in Iran. J Med Plants 3:58–72Google Scholar
  17. Gohari AR, Hadjiakhoondi A, Shafiee A, Ebrahimi ES, Mozaffarian V-A (2005) Chemical composition of the essential oils of Satureja atropatana and Satureja mutica growing wild in Iran. J Essent Oil Res 17:17–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gohari AR, Hadjiakhoondi A, Sadat-Ebrahimi E, Saeidnia S, Shafiee A (2006) Composition of the volatile oils of Satureja spicigera C. Koch Boiss. and S. macrantha CA Mey from Iran. Flavour Frag J 21:510–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hadian J, Ebrahimi SN, Salehi P (2010) Variability of morphological and phytochemical characteristics among Satureja hortensis L. accessions of Iran. Ind Crop Prod 32:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hsu CS (2003) Analytical advances for hydrocarbon research. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maroofi H (2010) Two new plant species from Kurdistan province, West of Iran. Iran J Bot 16:76–80Google Scholar
  22. Mohammadi M, Yousefi M, Habibi Z, Dastan D (2012) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of aerial parts of Petasites albus from Iran: a good natural source of euparin. Nat Prod Res 26:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mumivand H, Rustaii A-R, Jahanbin K, Dastan D (2010) Essential oil composition of Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh from Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 13:717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naseri M, Monsef-Esfehani H, Saeidnia S, Dastan D, Gohari A (2013) Antioxidative coumarins from the roots of Ferulago subvelutina. Asian J Chem 25:1875Google Scholar
  25. Novak J, Bahoo L, Mitteregger U, Franz C (2006) Composition of individual essential oil glands of savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae) from Syria. Flavour Frag J 21:731–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oke F, Aslim B, Ozturk S, Altundag S (2009) Essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. Food Chem 112:874–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Özer H, Sökmen M, Güllüce M, Adigüzel A, Sahin F, Sökmen A, Kiliç H, Baris Ö (2007) Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Hippomarathrum microcarpum (Bieb.) from Turkey. J Agric Food Chem 55:937–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ozkan G, Simsek B, Kuleasan H (2007) Antioxidant activities of Satureja cilicica essential oil in butter and in vitro. J Food Eng 79:1391–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pezhmanmehr M, Dastan D, Ebrahimi SN, Hadian J (2010) Essential oil constituents of leaves and fruits of Myrtus communis L. from Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 13:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raut JS, Karuppayil SM (2014) A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils. Ind Crop Prod 62:250–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rice-Evans C, Miller N, Paganga G (1997) Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 2:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sefidkon F, Jamzad Z (2004) Essential oil composition of Satureja spicigera (C. Koch) Boiss. from Iran. Flavour Frag J 19:571–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sefidkon F, Jamzad Z (2006) Essential oil analysis of Iranian Satureja edmondi and S. isophylla. Flavour Frag J 21:230–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Senatore F, Urrunaga Soria E, Urrunaga Soria R, Della Porta G, De Feo V (1998) Essential oils from two Peruvian Satureja species. Flavour Frag J 13:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shan B, Cai Y-Z, Brooks JD, Corke H (2007) The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. Int Food Microbiol 117:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shibamoto T (1987) Retention indices in essential oil analysis in capillary gas chromatography. In: Sandra P, Bicchic A (eds) Essential oil analysis. Alfred Heuthig-Verlag, New York, pp 259–275Google Scholar
  37. Singh G, Marimuthu P, de Heluani CS, Catalan CA (2006) Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components. J Agric Food Chem 54:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tepe B, Sokmen A (2007) Production and optimisation of rosmarinic acid by Satureja hortensis L. callus cultures. Nat Prod Res 21:1133–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zeidán-Chuliá F, Keskin M, Könönen E, Uitto V-J, Söderling E, Moreira JCF, Gürsoy UK (2015) Antibacterial and antigelatinolytic effects of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil on epithelial cells exposed to Fusobacterium nucleatum. J Med Food 18:503–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zelić B, Hadolin M, Bauman D, Vasić-Rački D (2005) Recovery and purification of rosmarinic acid from rosemary using electrodialysis. Acta Chim Slov 52:126–130Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elham Abdali
    • 1
  • Shima Javadi
    • 1
  • Maryam Akhgari
    • 2
  • Seyran Hosseini
    • 3
  • Dara Dastan
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Sciences BranchIslamic Azad University (IAUPS)TehranIran
  2. 2.Legal Medicine Research CenterLegal Medicine OrganizationTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of NutritionKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research CenterHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of PharmacyHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran

Personalised recommendations