Effects of heat treatment on the gel properties of the body wall of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)
- 169 Downloads
The sensory texture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T21 increased by 133.33, 55.56, and 59.09% in the HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups, respectively. This indicated that moderate heating conditions (below 100 °C) caused gelation of sea cucumbers in HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups. However, as the water activity increased, the hardness declined rapidly by 2.56 and 2.7% in the HSC-110 and HSC-120 groups, with heating time increased from 10 to 80 min. Meanwhile, free hydroxyproline and ammonia nitrogen contents increased by 81.24 and 63.16% in the HSC-110 group; and by 63.09 and 54.99% in the HSC-120 group, as the gel structure of the sea cucumbers decomposed in these two groups. These results demonstrated that, severe heat treatment (above 100 °C) destroyed the chemical bonds, triggered the disintegration of collagen fibers and the gel structure of sea cucumbers, and transformed the migration and distribution of moisture, finally causing the deterioration of the sensory texture of the sea cucumbers.
KeywordsSea cucumber Heat treatment Texture Gel Moisture
This work was supported by “Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2014CQ015)”, “China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M511549)”, “China Postdoctoral Special Science Foundation”, “Applied Basic Research Programs of Qingdao (No. 14-2-4-106-jch)”.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- AOAC (2000) AOAC official method 984.25. Moisture (loss of mass on drying) in frozen French-fried potatoes. Convection oven method. In: Horwitz W (ed) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis, vol II, 17th edn. Assc Official Agric Chem, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Hou H, Chen TJ, Peng Z, Zhang ZH, Xue CH, Li BF (2014) Stability and degradation regulation of body wall gel of sea cucumber treated by high hydrostatic pressure. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 30(22):316–322Google Scholar
- Lee MH, Kim YK, Moon HS, Kim KD, Kim GG, Cho HA, Yoon NY, Sim KB, Park HY, Lee DS, Lim CW, Yoon HD, Han SK (2012) Comparison on proximate composition and nutritional profile of red and black sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from Ulleungdo (Island) and Dokdo (Island), Korea. Food Sci Biotechnol 21(5):1285–1291. doi: 10.1007/s10068-012-0169-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang WJ, Xue CH, Cong HH, Jia M, Wang ZQ (2012) Study on the change of moisture state in sea cucumber during rehydration processing by LF-NMR and LF-MRI. Sci Technol Food Ind 33:90–93Google Scholar