Skip to main content
Log in

A comparative overview of antioxidative properties and phenolic profiles of different fungal origins: fruiting bodies and submerged cultures of Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Journal of Food Science and Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Bioactive properties of fungi considerably differ between the fruiting body (FB) and the submerged culture as regards mycelia (M) and the fermentation broth (F). Antioxidant properties of hot-water extracts obtained from three different fungal origins: FB, M and F of two autochthonous fungal species (Northern Serbia), Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum were investigated. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated in vitro by the DPPH assay and reducing power ability (FRAP assay). Considering possible bioactive properties of different compounds present in fungal extracts, the content of total proteins (TP), phenols (TC) and flavonoids (TF) were investigated colorimetrically. The chemical characterisation of the examined extracts was evaluated using the HPLC–MS/MS method. C. comatus showed the strongest RSC activity; more precisely, fermentation broth extract (FCc) on DPPH radicals (IC50 = 5.06 μg mL−1) and fruiting body extract (FBCc) for the FRAP assay (42.86 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g). Submerged M extract of both species showed the highest TC (MCc 81.95 mg gallic acid eq (GAE)/g d.w.; MCt 81.64 mg GAE/g d.w.), while FB extracts contained the highest content of TP. Comparing LC–MS phenolic profiles between species—interspecifically and among different fungal origins—intraspecifically (fruiting bodies and submerged cultures), high variations were noticed. In submerged M or F extracts of C. comatus, vanillic, gallic, gentisic and cinnamic acids were detected, as opposed to FB. Considering that diverse phenolic profiles of detected antioxidant compounds were obtained by submerged cultivation, this type of cultivation is promising for the production of antioxidant substances.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others





Fermentation broth


Fruiting body


Fruiting body extract of C. comatus


Fruiting body extract of C. truncorum


Fermentation broth extract of C. comatus


Fermentation broth extract of C. truncorum


Ferric reducing ability of plasma


Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry




Submerged mycelium extract of C. comatus


Submerged mycelium extract of C. truncorum


Reactive oxygen species


Free radical scavenging capacity


Total phenol content


Total flavonoid content


Total protein content


  • Asatiani M, Elisashvili V, Wasser S, Reznick A, Eviatar N (2007) Free-radical scavenging activity of submerged mycelium extracts from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:3090–3092

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Asatiani MD, Elisashvili V, Songulashvili G, Reznick AZ, Wasser SP (2010) Higher basidiomycetes mushrooms as a source of antioxidants. In: Rai M, Kövics G (eds) Progres in Mycology, 1st edn. Rajasthan Law Book Binding Works, Jodhpur, pp 311–326

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70–76

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Birt DF, Hendrich S, Wang W (2001) Dietary agents in cancer prevention: flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Pharmacol Ther 90:157–177

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of quantities microgram of protein utilizing the principle of dye-binding protein. Anal Biochem 72:248–254

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chang ST, Miles PG (2004) Mushrooms: cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Chang CC, Yang HM, Wen HM, Chern JC (2002) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10:178–182

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen N, Cohen J, Asatiani MD, Varshney VK, Yu HT, Yang YC, Li YH, Mau JL, Wasser SP (2014) Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms 16:273–291

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Silva DD, Rapior S, Hyde KD, Bahkali AH (2012) Medicinal mushrooms in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. Fungal Divers 56:1–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding Z, Lu T, Lu Z, Lv F, Wang Y, Bie X, Wang F, Zhang K (2010) Hypoglycaemic effect of comatin, an antidiabetic substance separated from Coprinus comatus broth, on alloxan-induced-diabetic rats. Food Chem 121:39–43

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Elisashvili V (2012) Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 14:211–239

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Espin CJ, Soler-Rivas G, Wichers JH (2000) Characterization of the total free radical scavenger capacity of vegetable oils and oil fractions using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. J Agric Food Chem 48:648–656

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fraga C (2009) Plant Phenolics and Human Health: Biochemistry, Nutrition, and Pharmacology. Wiley, New Jersey

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1990) Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Methods Enzymol 186:1–85

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Han RM, Tian YX, Liu Y, Chen CH, Ai XC, Zhang JP, Skibsted LH (2009) Comparison of flavonoids and isoflavonoids as antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 57:3780–3785

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ho CT, Lee CY, Huang MT (1992) Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health I. Analysis occurrence & chemistry. ACS Publications, Washington

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Karaman M, Stahl M, Vulić J, Vesić M, Čanadanović-Brunet J (2014) Wild-growing lignicolous mushroom species as sources of novel agents with antioxidative and antibacterial potentials. Int J Food Sci Nutr 65:311–319

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ko KS, Lim YW, Kim YH, Jung HS (2001) Phylogeographic divergences of nuclear ITS sequences in Coprinus species sensu lato. Mycol Res 105:1519–1526

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li B, Lu F, Suo X, Nan H, Li B (2010) Antioxidant properties of cap and stipe from Coprinus comatus. Molecules 15:1473–1486

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McDonald S, Prenzler PD, Antolovich M, Robards K (2001) Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chem 73:73–84

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mushtaq MY, Choi YH, Verpoorte R, Wilson EG (2013) Extraction for metabolomics: access to the metabolome. Phytochem Anal 25:291–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen TK, Lee MW, Yoon KN, Kim HY, Jin GH, Choi JH, Im KH, Lee TS (2014) In vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cholinesterase, tyrosinase and nitric oxide inhibitory potential of fruiting bodies of Coprinellus micaceus. J Mushrooms 12:330–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orčić D, Francišković M, Bekvalac K, Svirčev E, Beara I, Lesjak M, Mimica-Dukic Neda (2014) Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Food Chem 143:48–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pero RW, Lund H, Leanderson T (2009) Antioxidant metabolism induced by quinic acid. Increased urinary excretion of tryptophan and nicotinamide. Phytother Res 23:335–346

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Popović M, Vukmirović S, Stilinović N, Čapo I, Jakovljević V (2010) Anti-oxidative activity of an aqueous suspension of commercial preparation of the mushroom Coprinus comatus. Molecules 15:4564–4571

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Powell M (2014) Medicinal mushrooms—a clinical quide. Mycology Press, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Redhead SA, Vilgalys R, Moncalvo JM, Johnson J, Hopple JS Jr. (2001) Coprinus Persoon and the disposition of Coprinus species sensu lato. Taxon 50(1):203–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh G, Maurya S, deLampasona MP, Catalan CAN (2007) A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food Chem Toxicol 45:1650–1661

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stojković D, Reis F, Barros L, Glamočija J, Ćirić A, Griensven L, Soković M, Ferreira I (2013) Nutrients and non-nutrients composition and bioactivity of wild and cultivated Coprinus comatus (O. F. M Müll.) Pers. Food Chem Toxicol 59:289–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vaz JA, Barros L, Martins A, Santos-Buelga C, Vasconcelos M, Ferreira I (2011) Chemical composition of wild edible mushrooms and antioxidant properties of their water soluble polysaccharidic and ethanolic fractions. Food Chem 126:610–616

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wasser SP (2011) Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:1323–1332

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zahid S, Udenigwe CC, Ata A, Eze MO, Segstro EP, Holloway P (2006) New bioactive natural products from Coprinus micaceus. Nat Prod Res 20:1283–1289

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zenkova VA, Efremenkova OV, Ershova EY, Tolstych IV, Dudnik YV (2003) Antimicrobial activity of medicinal mushrooms from the genus Coprinus (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Agaricomycetideae). Int J Med Mushrooms 5:1–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang M, Zhu L, Cui SW, Wang Q, Zhou T, Shen H (2011) Fractionation, partial characterization and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides and polysaccharide–protein complexes from Pleurotus geesteranus. Int J Biol Macromol 48:5–12

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao S, Rong CB, Kong C, Liu Y, Xu F, Miao QJ, Wang SX, Wang HX, Zhang GQ (2014) A novel laccase with potent antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from mycelia of mushroom Coprinus comatus. BioMed Res Int 2014:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhong JJ, Tang YJ (2004) Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 87:25–59

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was carried out within the Project supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia Nos. 172058 and 172053 and is a partial fulfilment of Ph. D. thesis of M.Sc Kristina Tešanović.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Boris Pejin or Maja Karaman.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tešanović, K., Pejin, B., Šibul, F. et al. A comparative overview of antioxidative properties and phenolic profiles of different fungal origins: fruiting bodies and submerged cultures of Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum . J Food Sci Technol 54, 430–438 (2017).

Download citation

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: