Skip to main content

Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies

Abstract

Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415–0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Ahmed J, Al-Attar H, Arfat YA (2016) Effect of particle size on compositional, functional pasting and rheological properties of commercial water chestnut flour. Food Hydrocoll 52:888–895

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez-Jubete L, Wijngaard H, Arendt EK, Gallagher E (2010) Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking. Food Chem 119:770–778

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Baba NW, Rashid I, Shah A, Ahmad M, Gani A, Masoodi FA (2014) Effect of microwave roasting on antioxidant and anti-cancerous activities of barley flour. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 27:143–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Baba WN, Din S, Punoo HA, Wani TA, Ahmad M, Masoodi FA (2016) Comparison of cheese and paneer whey for production of a functional pineapple beverage: Nutraceutical properties and Shelf life. J Food Sci Technol 53:2558–2568. doi:10.1007/s13197-016-2218-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bala A, Gul K, Riar CS (2015) Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours. Cogent Food Agriculture 1:1019815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bazaz R, Baba WN, Masoodi FA (2016) Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour. Cogent Food Agric 2:1–17. doi:10.1080/23311932.2016.1154714

    Google Scholar 

  • Brewer MS (2011) Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food 10:221–247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiang PY, Ciou JY (2010) Effect of pulverization on the antioxidant activity of water caltrop (Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) pericarps. LWT Food Sci Technol 43:361–365

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiang PY, Ciou JY, Hsieh L (2008) Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds extracted from fresh and dried water caltrop pulp (Trapa taiwanensisNakai). J Food Drug Analysis 16:66–73

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chinma CE, Gernah DI (2007) Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from cassava/soyabean/mango composite flours. J Food Technol 5:256–260

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chlopicka J, Pasko P, Gorinstein S, Jedryas A, Zagrodzki P (2012) Total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of pseudocereal breads. LWT Food Sci Technol 46:548–555

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Correia P, Beirao-da-Costa ML (2012) Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of chestnut flours. Food Bioprod Process 90:284–294

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • David O, Arthur E, Kwadwo SO, Badu E, Sakyi P (2015) Proximate composition and some functional properties of soft wheat flour. Int J Inn Res Sci Eng Technol 4:753–758

    Google Scholar 

  • Elhamirad AH, Zamanipoor MH (2012) Thermal stability of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in sheep tallow olein. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 114:602–606

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heshe GG, Haki GD, Woldegiorgis AZ, Gemede HF (2016) Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread. Food Sci Nutr 4(4):534–543

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hosu A, Cristea VM, Cimpoiu C (2014) Analysis of total phenolics, flavonoids & tannin content in Romanian red wines: Prediction of antioxidant activities & classification of wines using artificial neural networks. Food Chem 150:113–118

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jan U, Gani A, Ahmad M, Shah U, Baba WN, Masoodi FA, Maqsood S, Gani A, Wani IA, Wani SM (2015) Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on oxidant properties. J Food Sci Technol 52(10):6334–6344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mann S, Gupta D, Gupta V, Gupta RK (2012) Evaluation of nutritional, phytochemical and antioxidant potential of Trapa bispinosa Roxb fruits. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:432–436

    Google Scholar 

  • McWatters KM (1978) Cookie baking properties of defatted peanut, soybean and field pea flours in baking powder biscuits. Cereal Chem 55:853–863

    Google Scholar 

  • Mir NA, Gul K, Riar CS (2015) Physicochemical, pasting and thermal properties of water chestnut flours: a comparative analysis of two geographic sources. J Food Process Preserv 39:1407–1413

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nisar R, Baba WN, Masoodi FA (2015) Effect of chemical and thermal treatments on quality parameters and anti-oxidant activity of apple (pulp) grown in high Himalayan regions. Cogent Food Agric 1:1–13. doi:10.1080/23311932.2015.1063797

    Google Scholar 

  • Okpala L, Okoli E, Udensi E (2013) Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flours. Food Sci Nutr 1:8–14

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park J, Choi I, Kim Y (2015) Cookies formulated from fresh okara using starch, soy flour and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have high quality and nutritional value. LWT Food Sci Technol 63:660–666

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tran PL, Lee JS, Park KH (2013) Molecular structure and rheological character of high-amylose water caltrop (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.) starch. Food Sci Biotechnol 22:979–985

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piga A, Catzeddu Farris S, Roggio T, Sanguinetti A, Scano E (2005) Texture evolution of “amaretti” cookies during storage. Euro Food Res Technol 221:387–391

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarabhai S, Prabhasankar P (2015) Influence of whey protein concentrate and potato starch on rheological properties and baking performance of Indian water chestnut flour based gluten free cookie dough. LWT Food Sci Technol. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.111

    Google Scholar 

  • Secchi N, Stara G, Anedda R, Campus M, Piga A, Roggio T, Catzeddu P (2011) Effectiveness of sweet ovine whey powder in increasing the shelf life of Amaretti Cookies. LWT Food Sci Technol 44:1073–1078

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh S, Singh N (2010) Effect of debranning on the physico-chemical, cooking, pasting and textural properties of common and durum wheat varieties. Food Res Int 43:2277–2283

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh N, Harinder K, Sekhon KS, Kaur B (1991) Studies on the improvement of functional and baking properties of wheat–chickpea flour blends. Food Chem 15:391–402

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh GD, Riar CS, Saini C, Bawa AS, Sogi DS, Saxena DC (2011) Indian water chestnut flour method optimization for preparation, its physicochemical, morphological, pasting properties and its potential in cookies preparation. LWT Food Sci Technol 44:665–672

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yadav BS, Yadav RB, Kumari M, Khatkar BS (2014) Studies on suitability of wheat flour blends with sweet potato, colocasia and water chestnut flours for noodle making. LWT Food Sci Technol 57:352–358

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yasuda M, Yasutake K, Hino M, Ohwatari H, Ohmagari N, Takedomi K, Tanaka T, Nonaka GI (2014) Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from WC (Trapa japonica) husk on glycolytic enzymes and postprandial blood glucose elevation in mice. Food Chem 165:42–49

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yellavila SB, Agbenorhevi JK, Asibuo JY, Sampson GO (2015) Proximate composition, minerals content and functional properties of five Lima bean accessions. J Food Sec 3:69–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu L, Nanguet AL, Beta T (2013) Comparison of antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and bread. Antioxidants 2:370–383

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Farooq Ahmad Masoodi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shafi, M., Baba, W.N., Masoodi, F.A. et al. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies. J Food Sci Technol 53, 4278–4288 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2423-5

Download citation

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2423-5

Keywords

  • Water chestnut
  • Nutritional composition
  • Antioxidants
  • Cookie characteristics