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Argentinian pistachio oil and flour: a potential novel approach of pistachio nut utilization

Abstract

In order to searching a potential novel approach to pistachio utilization, the chemical and nutritional quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted, and salted roasted pistachios from Argentinian cultivars were evaluated. The pistachio oil has high contents of oleic and linoleic acid (53.5–55.3, 29–31.4 relative abundance, respectively), tocopherols (896–916 μg/g oil), carotenoids (48–56 μg/g oil) and chlorophylls (41–70 μg/g oil), being a good source for commercial edible oil production. The processing conditions did not affect significantly the fatty acid distribution and minor components of pistachio oil samples. The roasting process not diminish total phenolic (TP) and flavonoids (FL) content significantly compared to natural pistachio flour (NPF), even so reduced the DPPH antioxidant capacity (approximately 20 %) in the roasted pistachio flour (RPF). Furthermore, salted roasted pistachio flour (SRPF) showed a slight and significant decrease on TP and FL content in relation to the others samples. The phenolic profile of pistachio flours were evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The major compounds were (+)-catechin (38–65.6 μg/g PF d.w.), gallic acid (23–36 μg/g PF d.w.) and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (21–23 μg/g PF d.w.). The treatments have different effects on the phenolics constituents of pistachio flour. Roasting caused a significant reduction of some phenolics, gallic acid and (+)-catechin, and increased others, naringenin and luteolin. Otherwise, salting and roasting of pistachio increased levels of gallic acid and naringenin. These results suggest that Argentinian pistachio oil and flour could be considered as ingredients into applications that enhance human health.

Abstract

In order to searching a potential novel approach to pistachio utilization, the chemical and nutritional quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted, and salted roasted pistachios from Argentinian cultivars were evaluated. The pistachio oil has high contents of oleic and linoleic acid (53.5 - 55.3, 29 - 31.4 relative abundance, respectively), tocopherols (896 - 916 μg/g oil), carotenoids (48 - 56 μg/g oil) and chlorophylls (41 - 70 μg/g oil), being a good source for commercial edible oil production. The processing conditions did not affect significantly the fatty acid and minor composition of pistachio oil samples. The content of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoids (FL) was not significantly modified by the roasting process, whereas free radical scavenging (DPPH radical) and antioxidant power decreased in a 20% approximately. Furthermore, salted roasted pistachio flour (SRPF) showed a significant decrease in TP and FL content in comparison to others samples. The phenolic profile of pistachio flours evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The major compounds identified were (+)-catechin (38 - 65.6 μg/g PF d.w.), gallic acid (23 - 36 μg/g PF d.w.) and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (21 - 23 μg/g PF d.w.). The treatments effects on the phenolics constituents of pistachio flour. Roasting caused a significant reduction of some phenolics, gallic acid and (+)- catechin, and increased others, naringenin and luteolin. Salting and roasting of pistachio increased garlic acid and naringenin content.

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Acknowledgments

Authors are grateful to CICITCA, Universidad Nacional de San Juan and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, SECITI Gobierno de la Provincia de San Juan (IDeA Exp N° 1400-0107-2012), Argentina for the financial support. G.E.F., M.P.F., M.V.B., M.L.M., D.M.M. and D.A.W. are researchers from CONICET, Argentina. R.N.M.H. is fellow CONICET. We would like to express our gratitude to Piste´ S.R.L. for providing pistachio samples.

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Correspondence to Gabriela Egly Feresin.

Additional information

Marcela Lilian Martínez and María Paula Fabani have equal contribution.

Research highlights

The chemical quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted and salted-roasted pistachios are reported.

The pistachio oils are highlighted by the contents of tocopherols, oleic and linoleic acid.

Pistachio flour is a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health

The results suggest that oil and flour from pistachio are a novel approach of pistachio nut.

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Martínez, M.L., Fabani, M.P., Baroni, M.V. et al. Argentinian pistachio oil and flour: a potential novel approach of pistachio nut utilization. J Food Sci Technol 53, 2260–2269 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2184-1

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Keywords

  • Pistachia vera cv Kerman
  • Flour
  • Oil
  • Phenolics
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Health