Skip to main content

Changes of proteins during superchilled storage of Atlantic salmon muscle (Salmo salar)


Changes in protein stability in relation to ice crystals development in salmon fillets during superchilled storage were studied. Due to the significant differences in ice crystal sizes observed in our previous studies, the protein solubility was analysed separately, at the surfaces and centres of the superchilled samples. The water-soluble proteins were stable for the entire storage time. The salt-soluble proteins in the superchilled samples were stable for 1 week of storage. The salt-soluble proteins were significantly decreased at day 7 and 14 of the centre and surface of the superchilled samples, respectively. In contrast, the salt-soluble proteins were significantly increased at day 21 both at the centre and surface of the superchilled samples. These findings are significant for the industry because it provides valuable information on the quality of food in relation to ice crystallization/recrystallization during superchilled storage.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  • Alizadeh E, Chapleau N, de Lamballerie M, Le Bail A (2007) Effect of different freezing processes on the microstructure of Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) fillets. Innovative Food Sci Emerg Technol 8:493–499. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2006.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ando M, Nakamura H, Harada R, Yamane A (2004) Effect of super chilling storage on maintenance of freshness of Kuruma Prawn. J Food Sci Technol Res 10:25–31. doi:10.3136/fstr.10.25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bahuaud D, Mørkøre T, Langsrud Ø, Sinnes K, Veiseth E, Ofstad R, Thomasse MS (2008) Effects of −1.5 oC superchilling on quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-rigor fillets: Cathepsin activity, muscle histology, texture and liquid leakage. Food Chem 111:329–339. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.075

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bao HND, Arason S, Thórarinsdóttir KA (2007) Effects of dry ice and superchilling on quality and shelf life of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fillets. Int J Food Eng 3:1–27. doi:10.2202/1556-3758.1093

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beaufort A, Cardinal M, Le-Bail A, Midelet-Bourdin G (2009) The effects of superchilled storage at −2 oC on the microbiological and organoleptic properties of cold-smoked salmon before retail display. Int J Refrig 32(7):1850–1857. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2009.07.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benjakul S, Visessanguan W (2010) Impacts of freezing and frozen storage on quality changes of seafoods. In: Devahastin S (ed) Physicochemical aspects of food engineering and processing. CRC press, New York, pp 283–306

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Blond G, Meste ML (2004) Principes of frozen storage. In: Murell KD, Hui YH, Nip W-K, Lim MH, Lugarreta IG, Cornillon P (eds) Handbook of frozen foods. CRCMarcel Dekker, Inc, United State of America. doi:10.1201/9780203022009.ch3

    Google Scholar 

  • Chevalier D, Sequeira-Munoz A, Bail AL, Simpson BK, Ghoul M (2001) Effect of freezing conditions and storage on ice crystal and drip volume in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Evaluation of pressure shift freezing vs. air-blast freezing. Innovative Food Sci Emerg Technol 1:193–201. doi:10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00024-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duun AS (2008) Superchilling of muscle food storage stability and quality aspects of salmon (Salmo salar), cod (Gadus morhua) and pork. Doctoral theses. Trondheim: Dep. Biotechnology, NTNU. Retrieved on 01.11.14

  • Duun AS, Rustad T (2007) Quality changes during superchilled storage of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. Food Chem 105(3):1067–1107. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.020

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duun AS, Rustad T (2008) Quality of superchilled vacuum packed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at −1.4 and −3.6 °C. Food Chem 106(1):122–131. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.051

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Einarsson H (1988) Deep chilling (superchilling, partial freezing) – a literature survey. SIKs Service series (30) Goteborg, Sweden, SIK – The Swedish food Institute, Chalmers University of Technology

  • Erikson U, Misimi EL, Gallart-Jornet E (2011) Superchilling of rested Atlantic salmon: different chilling strategies and effects on fish and fillet quality. Food Chem 127:1427–1437. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.036

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gallart-Jornet L, Rustad T, Barat JM, Fito P, Escriche I (2007) Effect of superchilled storage on the freshness and salting behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets. Food Chem 103:1268–1281. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.040

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagiwara T, Wang H, Suzuki T, Takai R (2002) Fractal analysis of ice crystals in frozen food. J Agric Food Chem 50:3085–3089. doi:10.1021/jf011240g

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hultmann L, Rustad T (2002) Textural changes during iced storage of salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua). J Aquat Food Prod Technol 11(3/4):105–123. doi:10.1300/J030v11n03_09

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaczynski J, Tahergorabi R, Hunt AL, Park JW (2012) Safety and quality of frozen aquatic food products. In: Sun D-W (ed) Handbook of frozen food processing, 2nd edn. CRC press, Taylor & Francis group

  • Jiang ST, Lee TC (1985) Changes in free amino acids and protein denaturation of fish muscle during frozen storage. J Agric Food Chem 33:839–844. doi:10.1021/jf00065a018

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD (2014) Modelling and ice crystallization/recrystallization of foods in superchilling technology. Superchilling of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM (2014) The development of ice crystals in food products during the superchilling process and following storage, a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 39(2):91–103. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2014.07.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Rustad T, Kolsaker K (2011) Superchilling of food, a review. J Food Eng 107(2):141–146. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.06.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Bardal T, Kjorsvik E (2013a) A study of the ice crystals in vacuum-packed salmon fillets (Salmon salar) during superchilling process and following storage. J Food Eng 115:20–25. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.09.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Bardal T, Kjorsvik E, Nordtvedt TS (2013b) The effect of cooling rates on the ice crystal growth in air-packed salmon fillets during superchilling and superchilled storage. Int J Refrig 36:110–119. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.09.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Kolsaker K, Stevik AM (2013c) Modelling and simulation of food products in superchilling technology. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 23:409–420. doi:10.1080/10498850.2012.721160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Rustad T, Nordtvedt TS, Bardal T, Kjørsvik E (2013d) Ice crystal development in pre-rigor Atlantic salmon fillets during superchilling process and following storage. Food Control 31(2):491–498. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.11.047

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Rustad T, Nordtvedt TS (2014) Changes in water holding capacity and drip loss of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) muscle during superchilled storage. LWT - Food Sci Technol 55(2):528–535. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2013.10.021

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kiani H, Sun D-W (2011) Water crystallization and its importance to freezing of foods: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:407–426. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2011.04.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martino MN, Zaritzky NE (1988) Ice crystal size modifications during frozen beef storage. J Food Sci 53(6):1631–1637. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb07802.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martino MN, Otero L, Sanz PD, Zaritzky NE (1998) Size and location of ice crystals in pork frozen by high-pressure-assisted freezing as compared to classical methods. Meat Sci 50:303–313. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00038-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mittal GS, Griffiths MW (2005) Pulsed electric field processing of liquid foods and beverage. In: Sun D-W (ed), Emerging technologies for food processing. Food science and technology, international series, Elsevier Ltd

  • Ocano-Higuera VM, Marquez-Rios E, Canizales-Davila M, Castillo-Yanez FJ, Pacheco-Aguilar R, Lugo-Sanchez ME, Garcia-Orozco KD, Graciano-Verdugo AZ (2009) Postmortem changes in cazon fish muscle stored on ice. Food Chem 116:933–938. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.049

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petzold G, Aguilera JM (2009) Ice morphology: fundamentals and technological applications in foods. Food Biophys 4:378–396. doi:10.1007/s11483-009-9136-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shenouda YKS (1980) Theories of protein denaturation during frozen storage of fish flesh. Adv Food Res 26:275–311

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith PG (2011) Introduction to food process engineering, 2nd edn. Food Science Text Series (chapter 11), United Kingdom. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-7662-8

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sotelo CG, Aubourg SP, Perez-Martin RI, Gallardo JM (1994) Protein denaturation in frozen stored hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) muscle: the role of formaldehyde. Food Chem 50:267–275. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(94)90131-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tejada M (2001) Aggregation of myofibrillar proteins during frozen storage of fish. In: Bozoglu F, Deak T and Ray B (eds) Novel processes and control technologies in the food industry. NATO science series

Download references


The authors are grateful to the Research Council of Norway (RCN project number 178280) for its financial support. We also acknowledged the NTNU SeaLab for giving access in their laboratory for the tissue processing and microscopic analysis experiments and Department of Biotechnology at Norwegian University of Science and Technology for analyzing water and salt-soluble proteins.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lilian Daniel Kaale.

Additional information


• Water and salt protein solubility during superchilled storage were analysed

• The development of ice crystals and protein solubility were studied

• The water-soluble proteins were stable for the whole storage time

• Salt-soluble proteins were stable for 1 week of storage

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kaale, L.D., Eikevik, T.M. Changes of proteins during superchilled storage of Atlantic salmon muscle (Salmo salar). J Food Sci Technol 53, 441–450 (2016).

Download citation

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Superchilled storage
  • Crystallization
  • Salmon fish (Salmo salar)
  • Proteins