The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdel-Aal ES, Hucl P (2002) Amino acid composition and in vitro protein digestibility of selected ancient wheats and their End products. J Food Comp Anal 15:737–747
Abugoch LE, Nalda R, Cristián AT, Jorge S, Mónica R (2008) Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) protein isolates. J Agr Food Chem 56:4745–4750
Anand BK, Pillai RV (1967) Activity of single neurones in the hypothalamic feeding centres: effect of gastric distension. J Geophys Res 192:63–77
Anderson GH, Moore SE (2004) Dietary proteins in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans. J Nutr 134:974S–979S
Banks WA, Coon AB, Robinson SM, Moinuddin A, Shultz JM, Nakaoke R, Morley JE (2004) Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood–brain barrier. Diabetes 53:1253–1260
Bhargava A, Shukla S, Ohri D (2003) Genetic variability and heritability of selected traits during different cuttings of vegetableChenopodium Ind. J Genet Plant Breed 63(4):359–360
Bhargava A, Shukla S, Ohri D (2006) Chenopodium quinoa An Indian perspective. Ind Crop Prod 23:73–87
Breene WM (1991) Food uses of grain amaranth. Cereal Foods World 36:426–430
Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S (1999) The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 22:233–240
Dezaki K, Hosoda H, Kakei M, Hashiguchi S, Watanabe M, Kangawa K, Yada T (2004) Endogenous ghrelin in pancreatic islets restricts insulin release by attenuating Ca2+ signaling in β-cells: implication in the glycemic control in rodents. Diabetes 53:3142–3151
Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, Auricchio S, Greco L, Clarke C, De Vincenzi M et al (2004) Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected Lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1088–1096
Escudero NL, De Arellano ML, Luco JM, Gimenez MS, Mucciarelli SI (2004) Comparison of the chemical composition and nutritional value of Amaranthus cruentus flour and its protein concentrate. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 59:15–21
Falholt K, Lund B, Falholt W (1973) An easy colorimetric micromethod for routine determination of free fatty acids in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 46:105–111
Foltz M, Ansems P, Schwarz J, Tasker MC, Lourbakos A, Gerhardt CC (2008) Protein hydrolysates induce CCK release from enteroendocrine cells and act as partial agonists of the CCK1 receptor. J Agri Food Chem 56:837–843
Gabrovska D, Fiedlerova V, Holasova M, Maskova E, Smrcinov H, Rysova J et al (2002) The nutritional evaluation of underutilized cereals and buckwheat. Food Nutr Bul 23:246–249
González CM, Rodriguez CA (2011) Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharm Res 64:438–455
Grill V, Bjorklund (2000) A Dysfunctional insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes: role of metabolic abnormalities. Cell Mol Life Sci 57:429–440
Hara H, Haga S, Aoyama Y, Kiriyama S (1999) Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine. J Nutr 129:942–948
James A, Lilian E (2009) Quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties. Adv Food Nutr Res 58:1–31
Kalra SP, Bagnasco M, Otukonyong EE, Dube MG, Kalra PS (2003) Rhythmic, reciprocal ghrelin and leptin signaling: new insight in the development of obesity. Regul Peptides 111:1–11
Kalra SP, Dube MG, Pu S, Xu B, Horvath TL, Kalra PS (1999) Interacting appetite-regulating pathways in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Endocr Rev 20:68–100
Kim SL, Kim SK, Park CO (2004) Introduction and nutritional evaluation of buckwheat sprouts as a new vegetable. Food Res Int 37:319–327
Liljeberg HGM, Bjorck IME (2000) Effects of low-glycaemic index spaghetti meal on glucose tolerance and lipaemia at a subsequent meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:24–28
Mahoney AW, López JG, Hendricks DG (1975) An evaluation of protein quality of quinoa. J Agr Food Chem 23(2):190–193
Moesgaard SG, Ahrén B, Carr RD, Gram DX, Brand CL, Sundler F (2004) Effects of high-fat feeding and fasting on ghrelin expression in the mouse stomach. Regul Peptides 120:261–267
Oomura Y, Kimura K, Ooyama H, Maeno T, Iki M, Kuniyoshi M (1964) Reciprocal activities of the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamic areas of cats. Science 143:484–485
Prakash D, Pal M (1998) Chenopodium: seed protein, fractionation and amino acid composition Int. J Food Sci Nutr 49:271–275
Ranhotra GS, Gelroth JA, Glaser BK, Lorenz KJ, Johnson DL (1993) Composition and protein nutritional quality of quinoa. Cereal Chem 70(3):303–305
Reidy SP, Weber JM (2002) Accelerated substrate cycling: a new energy-wasting role for leptin in vivo. Am J Physiol 282:E312–E317
Reimer MK, Pacini G, Ahren B (2003) Dose-dependent inhibition by ghrelin of insulin secretion in the mouse. Endocrinol 144:916–921
Ruales J, Nair B.M (1992) Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) seeds. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 42 1–12.
Saunders RM, Becker R (1984) Amaranth: a potential food and feed resourse. Adv Cereal Sci Technol 6:357–396
Skrabanja V, Kovac B, Golob T, Elmstahl GM, Bjorck I, Kreft I (2001a) Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics. J Agric Food Chem 49:497–500
Skrabanja V, Liljeberg Elmståhl HG, Kreft I, Björck IM (2001b) Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat products: studies in vitro and in vivo. J Agri Food Chem 49:490–496
Steinberg GR, Bonen A, Dyck DJ (2002) Fatty acid oxidation and triacylglycerol hydrolysis are enhanced after chronic leptin treatment in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E593–E600
Takao T, Watanabe N, Yuhara K, Itoh S, Suda S, Tsuruoka Y, Nakatsugawa K, Konishi Y (2005) Hypocholesterolemic effect of protein isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) seeds. Food Sci Technol Res 11:161–167
Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, Purnell JQ (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82:41–48
Williams J, Mobarhan S (2003) A critical interaction: leptin and ghrelin. Nutr Rev 61:391–393
Conflict of interest declaration
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, the present work.
The authors vouch that the work has not been published elsewhere, either completely, in part, or in any other form and that the manuscript has not been submitted to another journal, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere without the written consent of the copyright-holder. The submitting author certifies that all coauthors have seen a draft copy of the manuscript and agree with its publication.
About this article
Cite this article
Mithila, M.V., Khanum, F. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats. J Food Sci Technol 52, 6735–6741 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1691-1
- Food intake plasma glucose