Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 1802–1807

Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage

  • Lucyna Kłębukowska
  • Anna Zadernowska
  • Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska
Original Article


Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria–LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores.


Food spoilage Spices Garlic Microbiological contamination 


  1. Amagase H, Petesch BL, Matsuura H, Kasuga S, Itakura Y (2001) Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J Nutr 131:955–620. Google Scholar
  2. Brużewicz S, Malicki A (2007) Stan mikrobiologiczny wybranych przypraw i przeżywalność w nich drobnoustrojów. Żywność Nauka Technologia Jakość 4(53):99–108.,%204%2853%29/09_Bruzewicz.pdf (In Polish)
  3. Chia-Wen T, Haw-Wen C, Le-Yen S, Chong-Kuei L (2012) Garlic: health benefits and action. BioMedicine 2:17–29. doi:10.1016/j.biomed.2011.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Corzo-Martínez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M (2007) Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:609–625. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2007.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Roever C (1999) Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce. Food Control 10:117–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghoddusi HB, Sherburn R (2010) Preliminary study on the isolation of Clostridium butyricum strains from natural sources in the UK and screening the isolates for presence of the type E botulinal toxin gene. Int J Food Microbiol 142:202–206. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.06.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iciek M, Kwiecien I, Wlodek L (2009) Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds. Environ Mol Mutagen 50:247–265. doi:10.1002/em.20474 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jacxsens L, Devlieghere F, Ragaert P, Vanneste E, Debevere J (2003) Relation between microbiological quality, metabolite production and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut produce. Int J Food Microbiol 83(3):263–280. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00376-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Miron T, Rabinkov E, Peleg T, Rosenthal D, Mirelman M, Wilchek M (2004) Allylmercaptocaptopril: a new antihypertensive drug. Am J Hypertens 17(1):71–73. doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(03)01035-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nencini C, Menchiari A, Franchi GG, Micheli L (2011) In vitro antioxidant activity of aged extracts of some Italian allium species. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 66:11–16. doi:10.1007/s11130-010-0204-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oliveira KAM, Santos-Mendonça RC, Gomide LAM, Vanetti MCD (2005) Aqueous garlic extract and microbiological quality of refrigerated poultry meat. J Food Process Preserv 29:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Park JH, Park YK, Park E (2009) Antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) prepared by different processing methods. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:244–249. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0132-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pothakos V, Samapundo S, Devliegher F (2012) Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life. Food Microbiol 32(2):437–443. doi:10.1016/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sato E, Kohno M, Hamano H, Niwano Y (2006) Increased anti-oxidative potency of garlic by spontaneous short-term fermentation. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 61:157–160. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0017-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schweiggert U, Carle R, Schieber A (2007) Conventional and alternative processes for spice production—a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:260–268. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2007.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shim ST, Kyung KH (1998) Natural microflora of prepeeled garlic and their resistance to garlic antimicrobial activity. Food Microbiol 16:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sospedra I, Soriano JM, Mañes J (2010) Assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in Spain. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:364–368. doi:10.1007/s11130-010-0186-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. St Louis ME, Peck SHS, Bowering D, Morgan CB, Blatherwick J, Banerjee S, Kettyls GDM, Black WA, Milling ME, Hauschild AHW, Tauxe RV, Blake PA (1988) Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann Int Med 108:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. STATSOFT INC (2001) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 6.
  20. Valero M, Hernández-Herrero LA, Fernández PS, Salmerón MC (2002) Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from fresh vegetables and refrigerated minimally processed foods by biochemical and physiological tests. Food Microbiol 19:491–499. doi:10.1006/fmic.2002.0507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Witkowska AM, Dara K, Hickey DK, Alonso-Gomez M, Wilkinson MG (2011) The microbiological quality of commercial herb and spice preparations used in the formulation of a chicken supreme ready meal and microbial survival following a simulated industrial heating process. Food Control 22:616–625. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucyna Kłębukowska
    • 1
  • Anna Zadernowska
    • 1
  • Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial and Food Microbiology, Faculty of Food SciencesUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

Personalised recommendations