Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 51, Issue 9, pp 2099–2105 | Cite as

Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm

Original Article


Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter.


Enzymatic interesterification Camel hump fat Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2Neural networks Genetic algorithm 


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hajar Shekarchizadeh
    • 1
  • Reza Tikani
    • 2
  • Mahdi Kadivar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyCollege of Agriculture, Isfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

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