Skip to main content
Log in

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis)

Journal of Food Science and Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Ames BN, Shigenaga MK,Hagen TM (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol 90. vol 17. National Acad Sciences, p 7915

  • AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis. 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, USA

  • AOAC (2005) Determination of moisture, ash, protein and fat. 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, USA

  • Arvouet-Grand A, Vennat B, Pourrat A, Legret P (1994) Standardisation d'un extrait de propolis et identification des principaux constituants = Standardization of a propolis extract and identification of the main constituents. J de Pharmacie de Belgique 49(6):462–468

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Asp NG, Johansson CG, Hallmer H, Siljestrom M (1983) Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. J Agric Food Chem 31(3):476–482

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Atoui AK, Mansouri A, Boskou G, Kefalas P (2005) Tea and herbal infusions: their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. Food Chem 89(1):27–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bridle P, Timberlake CF (1997) Anthocyanins as natural food colours–selected aspects. Food Chem 58(1–2):103–109

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Caron MF, Riedlinger JE (2002) Valerian: a practical review for clinicians. Nutr Clin Care 2(4):250–257

    Google Scholar 

  • Chavan UD, Shahidi F, Naczk M (2001) Extraction of condensed tannins from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) as affected by different solvents. Food Chem 75(4):509–512

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cherbuliez T, Domerego R (2003) L'Apitherapie. Bruxelles: Amyris SPRL

  • Craig WJ (1999) Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr 70(3):491

    Google Scholar 

  • Duh PD, Tu YY, Yen GC (1999) Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of harn jyur (Chyrsanthemum morifolium Ramat). LWT-Food Sci Technol 32:269–277

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fardet A (2010) New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre. Nutr Res Rev 23(1):65–134

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Friedlander AH, Yagiela JA, Paterno VI,Mahler ME (2003) The pathophysiology, medical management, and dental implications of children and young adults having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Can Dental Asso J 31(9)

  • Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A (2010) Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules 15(6):4324–4333

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Godevac D, Vajs V, Menkovi N, Teševi V, Jana kovi PT, Milosavljevi S (2004) Flavonoids from flowers of Cephalaria pastricenis and their antiradical activity. J Serbian Chem Society 69(11):883–886

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grice HC (1988) Safety evaluation of butylated hydroxyanisole from the perspective of effects on forestomach and oesophageal squamous epithelium. Food Chem Toxicol 26(8):717–723

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hall CA (1997) Structure-Activities of natural antioxidants. In: Cuppett SL, Aruoma OI (eds) Antioxidant Methodology. In vivo and in vitro. Concepts. AOAC Press, Champaign

    Google Scholar 

  • Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Harborne JB, Williams CA (2000) Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry 55(6):481–504

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harish R, Shivanandappa T (2006) Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus niruri. Food Chem 95(2):180–185

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hassimotto NMA, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM (2005) Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J Agric Food Chem 53(8):2928–2935

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, Heinonen M (1999) Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 47(10):3954–3962

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kast RE (2001) Borage oil reduction of rheumatoid arthritis activity may be mediated by increased cAMP that suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Int Immunopharmacol 1(12):2197–2199

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klich R (1975) Behavior disorders in childhood and their therapy. Die Medizinische Welt 26(25):1251

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Korver O (1998) Functional foods: the food industry and functional foods: some European perspectives. Functional Foods for Disease Prevention: II Medicinal Plants and Other Foods American Chemical Society, Washington, DC:22–25

  • Lako J, Trenerry VC, Wahlqvist M, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Sotheeswaran S, Premier R (2007) Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. Food Chem 101(4):1727–1741

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee JH, Park JC, Choi JS (1996) The antioxidant activity of Ecklonia stolonifera. Arch Pharma Res 19(3):223–227

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu RH (2003) Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78(3):517S

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu M, Li XQ, Weber C, Lee CY, Brown J, Liu RH (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries. J Agri Food Chem 50(10):2926–2930

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lugasi A, Hóvári J (2003) Antioxidant properties of commercial alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Molecular Research and Food Research 47(2):79–86

    Google Scholar 

  • Matthaus B (2002) Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds. J Agric Food Chem 50(12):3444–3452

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Medoua GN, Egal AA, Oldewage-Theron WH (2009) Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of lunch meals consumed by elderly people of Sharpeville, South Africa. Food Chem 115(1):260–264

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oser BL (1965) Hawk's physiological chemistry. McGraw-Hill, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on product of browning reaction produced from glucose amine. Japanese J Nutr 44:307–315

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Podsedek A (2007) Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: a review. LWT-Food Sci Technol 40(1):1–11

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M (1999) Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 269:337–341

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ranganna S (1986) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill

  • Sachindra N, Airanthi MKWA, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K (2010) Radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching activity of extracts from Indian seaweeds. J Food Sci Technol 47(1):94–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shafaghi B, Naderi N, Tahmasb L, Kamalinjad M (2002) Anxiolytic effect of Echium amoenum in mice. Iranian J Pharma Res 1:37–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Siddhuraju P, Mohan PS, Becker K (2002) Studies on the antioxidant activity of Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): a preliminary assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers and fruit pulp. Food Chem 79(1):61–67

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sun T, Ho CT (2005) Antioxidant activities of buckwheat extracts. Food Chem 90(4):743–749

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Turkmen N, Sari F, Velioglu YS (2006) Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. Food Chem 99(4):835–841

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD (1998) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agri Food Chem 46(10):4113–4117

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wojdylo A, Oszmianski J, Czemerys R (2007) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem 105(3):940–949

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wong SY (1928) Colorimetrie determination of iron and haemoglobin in blood. J Biol Chem 77:409–412

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wretensjo I, Svensson L, Christie WW (1990) Gas chromatography -mass spectrometric identification of the fatty acids in borage oil using the picolinyl ester derivatives. J Chromatography 521(1):89–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wright LP, Mphangwe NIK, Nyirenda HE, Apostolides Z (2000) Analysis of caffeine and flavan-3-ol composition in the fresh leaf of Camellia sinesis for predicting the quality of the black tea produced in Central and Southern Africa. J Sci Food Agric 80(13):1823–1830

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yen GC, Duh PD, Tsai CL (1993) Relationship between antioxidant activity and maturity of peanut hulls. J Agri Food Chem 41(1):67–70

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yu BP (1995) Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiol Rev 75(1):236

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhou K, Yu L (2004) Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation. LWT-Food Sci Technol 37(7):717–721

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shirin Adel Pilerood.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adel Pilerood, S., Prakash, J. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis). J Food Sci Technol 51, 845–854 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0573-z

Download citation

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0573-z

Keywords

Navigation