Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 527–534 | Cite as

Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index

Original Article


The present study was undertaken to develop finger millet incorporated noodles for diabetic patients. Finger millet variety VL-149 was taken. The finger millet flour and refined wheat flour (RWF) were evaluated for nutrient composition. The finger millet flour (FMF) was blended in various proportions (30 to 50%) in refined wheat flour and used for the preparation of noodles. Control consisted of RWF noodles. Sensory quality and nutrient composition of finger millet noodles was evaluated. The 30% finger millet incorporated noodles were selected best on the basis of sensory evaluation. Noodles in that proportion along with control were evaluated for glycemic response. Nutrient composition of noodles showed that 50% finger millet incorporated noodles contained highest amount of crude fat (1.15%), total ash (1.40%), crude fiber (1.28%), carbohydrate (78.54%), physiological energy (351.36 kcal), insoluble dietary fiber (5.45%), soluble dietary fiber (3.71%), iron (5.58%) and calcium (88.39%), respectively. However, control RWF noodles contained highest amount of starch (63.02%), amylose (8.72%) and amylopectin (54.29%). The glycemic index (GI) of 30% finger millet incorporated noodles (best selected by sensory evaluation) was observed significantly lower (45.13) than control noodles (62.59). It was found that finger millet flour incorporated noodles were found nutritious and showed hypoglycemic effect.


Finger millet Noodles Extrusion Diabetes Glycemic index 


  1. AACC (1962) Approved methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists. Cereal Laboratory Methods, St. Paul MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (1975) Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Amerine MA, Pangborn RM, Roseller EB (1965) Principles of sensory evaluation of food. London Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora S, Srivastava S (2002) Suitability of millet based food products for diabetics. J Food Sci Tech 39(4):319–344Google Scholar
  5. Asp NG, Josanson CG (1981) Techniques for measuring dietary fibre: principal aims of methods and comparison of results obtained by different techniques. In: The analysis of dietary fibre in foodGoogle Scholar
  6. Balakrishna Rao K, Mithyantha MS, Devi LS, Perur NG (1973) Nutrient composition of some new ragi varieties. J Agric Sci Chem 7:562–565Google Scholar
  7. BIS 1485 (1976) Specification for macroni, spaghetti and vermicelli. Bureau of Indian Standards, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Burton P, Lightowler JH (2006) Influence of bread volume on glycaemic response and satiety. Br J Nutr 96:877–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerning J, Guilbot J (1973) Changes in carbohydrate composition during maturation of wheat and barley kernel. Cereal Chem 50:220–232Google Scholar
  10. Clegg KM (1956) The application of anthrone reagent in the estimation of starch in cereals. J Sci Food Agr 7:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cummings JH (1997) Nutritional implications of dietary fiber. Am J Clin Nutr 31:21–32Google Scholar
  12. Eriksson G (1969) The waxy character. Hereditas 63:180–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferrarnine E (1998) Insulin resistance versus insulin deficiency in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: problems and prospects. Endocr Rev 19:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gopalan C, Ramashastri BV, Balasubramanium SC (2002) Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  15. Grant LA, Dick JW, Shelton DR (1993) Effect of drying temperature, starch damage, sprouting and additives on spaghetti quality characteristics. Cereal Chem 70:676–684Google Scholar
  16. Guo G, Jackson DS, Graybosch RA, Parkhurst AM (2003) Asian salted noodle quality: impact: of amylose content adjustment using wheat flour. Cereal Chem 80:437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hadimani NA, Malleshi NG (1993) Studies on milling physico-chemical properties, nutrient composition and dietary fiber content of small millets. J Food Sci Tech 30(1):17–20Google Scholar
  18. Health and Lifestyle Management Series; Disease management (2004) Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  19. Jenkins DJA, Ghafari H, Wolever TMS (1982) Relationship between the rate of digestion of foods and post-prandial glycaemia. Diabetologia 22:450–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Joshi SA (2002) Diet for diabetes mellitus. Nutrition and dietetics 2nd edn Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. pp. 236–237Google Scholar
  21. Joshi HC, Katoch KK (1990) Nutritive value of millets: a comparison with cereals and pseudocereals. Himalayan Res Dev 9:26–28Google Scholar
  22. Kruger JE, Anderson MH, Dexter JE (1994) Effect of flour refinement on raw Cantonese noodles colour and texture. Cereal Chem 71(2):177–182Google Scholar
  23. Kuktaitie R, Larsson H, Johansson E (2004) Variation in protein composition of wheat flour and its relationship to dough mixing behaviour. J Cereal Sci 40:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lakshmi PK, Sumathi S (2002) Effect of consumption of finger millet on hypoglycaemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57(3–4):205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Landry J, Mourex T (1953) Protein fraction in millets. Bull Soc Chem Biol 52:1021Google Scholar
  26. Liceti AE, El-Dash AA, Biellei J (1995) Effect of temperature and protein content on physical properties of pasta made from rice enriched with soybean by extrusion cooking. Part 1, effect on water absorption and solubility employing response surface analysis. Nahrung 39:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mani UV, Prabhu BM, Damle SS, Mani I (1993) Glycemic index of some commonly consumed foods in western India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12:111–114Google Scholar
  28. Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C (2007) Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 125:217–230Google Scholar
  29. Ohm JB, Ross AS, Peterson CJ, Ong YL (2008) Relationship of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and molecular weight distribution of wheat flour protein with water absorption and colour characteristics of noodle dough. Cereal Chem 85(2):123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raghuram TC (1999) Diet and diabetes mellitus. In: Textbook of human nutritionGoogle Scholar
  31. Raghuramulu N, Madhavan NK, Kalyansundaram S (2003) A manual of laboratory techniques. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad, pp 175–177Google Scholar
  32. Singh P, Gurumukh S, Srivastava S, Agarwal P (2005) Functional characteristics of blends containing wheat flour and millet flour. Beverage Food World Feb pp. 28Google Scholar
  33. Singh N, Chauhan GS, Bains GS (1989) Effect of soy flour supplementation on quality of cooked noodles. Int J Food Sci Tech 24(4):111–114Google Scholar
  34. Singh P, Srivastava S (2006) Glycemic response of finger and banyard millet biscuits. J Eco Friendly Agr 1(2):168–170Google Scholar
  35. Singh R, Ushakumari Latha S, Malleshi NG (2004) The functional properties of popped, flaked, extruded and roller dried foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Ind J Food Sci Tech 39:907–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Snedecor GN, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  37. Snow P, O’Deo K (1981) Factors affecting the rate of starch in food. Am J Clin Nutr 54:846–854Google Scholar
  38. Srilakshmi B (2001) Diet in diabetes mellitus. In: Dietetics. New Delhi, New Age International, Pvt. LtdGoogle Scholar
  39. Srilakshmi B (2001) Food science 2nd edn. New age International Pvt. Ltd. pp. 55–56Google Scholar
  40. Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Rahim A (1998) Quality of vermicelli from finger millet and its blend with different wheat fractions. Food Res Int 31(2):99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thayumanavan B, Sadasivam S (1984) Plant Foods Hum Nutr 34:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vijayakumari J, Mushtari BJ, Shamshad B, Sumangala G (2003) Sensory attributes of ethnic foods from finger millet. Paper presented at CCSHAU, Hisar. Recent trends in millet processing and utilization: 7–12Google Scholar
  43. Wang C, Kovacs MIP, Fowler DB, Holley R (2004) Effects of protein content and composition on white noodle making quality: color. Cereal Chem 81:777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wankhede DB, Shehnaj A, Rao MRR (1979) Carbohydrate composition of finger millet (eleusine coracana) and foxtail millet (setaria italica). Quanl Plant Plant Food Hum Nutr 28(4):293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolever TMS (1990a) The glycemic index. World Rev Nutr Diet 62:120–185Google Scholar
  46. Wolever TMS (1990b) Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 51:72–75Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home ScienceG. B. Pant University of Agriculture and TechnologyPantnagarIndia

Personalised recommendations