Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1097–1105 | Cite as

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

  • Emmanuel Ohene AfoakwaEmail author
  • Jennifer Quao
  • Jemmy Takrama
  • Agnes Simpson Budu
  • Firibu Kwesi Saalia
Original Article


Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in ash (3.48–2.92%), protein (21.63–17.62%) and fat (55.21–50.40%) content of the beans while carbohydrate content increased from 15.47% to 24.93% with both treatments. As well, increasing pod storage and fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the copper content of the beans from while reductions in Mg and K occurred. Amongst the minerals studied, potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by magnesium, phosphorus and calcium in the fermented cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted.


Theobroma cacao Pod storage Forastero Fermentation Chemical composition Physical quality 



The authors want to thank the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo, Eastern Region, Ghana for providing the cocoa pods used in research study.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer Quao
    • 1
  • Jemmy Takrama
    • 2
  • Agnes Simpson Budu
    • 1
  • Firibu Kwesi Saalia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition & Food ScienceUniversity of GhanaAccraGhana
  2. 2.Cocoa Research Institute of GhanaNew TafoGhana

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