Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel


We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-β-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin exhibited high antibacterial activity. These 3 compounds were effectively extracted using ethanol and n-hexane, whereas phlorin was extracted with water. Further, the above 3 compounds were present in lemon essential oil and abundantly present in the residue produced upon the cooling treatment of concentrated lemon essential oil.

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We are grateful to Dr. Y. Sugiyama and Dr. M. Isobe of Bioagricultural Sciences, Graduate School of Nagoya University, for the FAB-MS and NMR measurements and to T. Kato and Y. Tamaki of the Pokka Corporation Ltd. for their advice on this experiment.

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Correspondence to Yoshiaki Miyake.

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Miyake, Y., Hiramitsu, M. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel. J Food Sci Technol 48, 635–639 (2011).

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  • Antibacterial substance
  • Lemon peel
  • Oral bacteria
  • 8-geranyloxypsolaren
  • 5-geranyloxypsolaren
  • 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin
  • Phlorin