Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

Abstract

Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Achanta S, Okos MR (1996) Predicting the quality of dehydrated foods and biopolymers-research needs and opportunities. Drying Technol 14:1329–1368

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Achariyaviriya A, Tiansuwan J, Soponronnarit S (2002) Energy optimization of whole longan drying. Simulation results. Int J Ambient energy 23:212–220

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ade-Omowaye BIO, Taiwo KA, Eshtiaghi NM, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2003) Comparative evaluation of the effects of pulsed electric field and freezing on cell membrane permeabilisation and mass transfer during dehydration of red bell peppers. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 4:177–188

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Alves-Filho O, García-Pascual P, Eikevik TM, Strømmen I (2004) Dehydration of green peas under atmospheric freeze-drying conditions. Proc 14th Int Drying Sym, Vol C, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 1521–1528

  5. Azura E, Garcia HS, Beristain C I (1996) Effect of centrifugal force on osmotic dehydration of potatoes and apples. Food Res Int 29:195–199

    Google Scholar 

  6. Beaudry C, Raghvan GSV, Rennie TJ (2003) Micro wave finish drying of osmotically dehydrated cranberries. Drying Technol 21:1797–1810

    Google Scholar 

  7. Beaudry C, Raghavan GSV, Ratti C, Rennie TJ (2004) Effect of four drying methods on the quality of osmotically dehydrated cranberries. Drying Technol 22:521–539

    Google Scholar 

  8. Beker CGJ (2005) Energy efficiency in drying. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:8–12

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bezyma LA, Kutovoy VA (2005) Vacuum drying and hybrid technologies. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:6–13

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bolin HR, Huxsoll CC, Jackson R (1983) Effect of osmotic agents and concentration on fruit quality. J Food Sci 48:202–205

    Google Scholar 

  11. Brown M (1999) Focusing on freeze drying. Food Manuf 76(9):34–36

    Google Scholar 

  12. Changrue V, Sunjka PS, Gariepy Y, Raghavan GSV, Wang N (2004) Realtime control of microwave drying process. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp Sao Paulo, Brazil 22–25 August, p 1532–1542

  13. Chou SK, Chua KJ (2001) New hybrid drying technologies for heat sensitive foodstuffs. Tr Food Sci Technol 12:359–369

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chua KJ, Majumdar AS, Chou SK (2003) Intermittent drying of bioproducts. An Overview Bioresour Technol 90:285–295

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Chua KJ, Mujumdar AS, Chou SK, Hawlader MNA, Ho JC (2000) Convective drying of banana, guava and potato pieces: effect of cyclical variations of air temperature on drying kinetics and color change. Drying Technol 18:907–936

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Cinar I (2004) Carotenoid pigment loss of freeze-dried plant samples under different storage conditions. Food Sci Technol 37:363–367

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Conwoy J, Castaigne F, Picard G, Vovau X (1983) Mass transfer considerations in the osmotic dehydration of apples. Can Inst Food Sci Technol 16:25–29

    Google Scholar 

  18. Cui ZW, Xu SY, Sun DW (2003) Dehydration of garlic slices by combined microwave vacuum and air drying. Drying Technol 21:1173–1184

    Google Scholar 

  19. Donsi G, Ferrari G, Nigro R, Maltero PD (1998) Combination of mild dehydration and freeze drying processes to obtain high quality dried vegetables and fruits. Trans, IChemE 76:181–187

    Google Scholar 

  20. Drouzas AE, Schubert H (1996) Microwave application in vacuum drying of fruit. J Food Eng 28:203–209

    Google Scholar 

  21. Erle U (2005) Drying using microwave processing. In: The microwave processing of foods. Schubert H, Regier M (ed), Woodhead Publ, Cambridge, England, p 142–152

    Google Scholar 

  22. Feng H, Tang J, Mattinson DS, Fellman JK (1999) Microwave and spouted bed drying of frozen blue berries. J Food Process Preserv 23:463–479

    Google Scholar 

  23. Filkova I, Majumdar AS (1995) Industrial spray system. In: Hand book of industrial drying, Majumdar AS (ed), Marcel Dekkar Inc, New York, p 263–307

    Google Scholar 

  24. Fito P, Chiralt A, Barat J M, Andres A, Martinez-Monzo J Martinez-Navarrete N (2001) Vacuum impregnation for development of new dehydrated products. J Food Eng 49:297–302

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gabas AL, Bernardi M, Telis-Romero J, Telis VRN (2004) Application of heat pump in drying of apple cylinders. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, Vol C, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 1922–1929

  26. George SD, Cenkowski S, Muir WE (2004) A review of drying technologies for the preservation of nutritional compounds in waxy skinned fruit. North Central ASAE/CSAE Conf, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 24–25 September, MB 04-104

  27. Grabowski S, Marcotte M, Ramaswamy HS (2003) Drying of fruits, vegetables, and spices. In: Handbook of Postharvest Technology: Cereals, Fruits, Vegetables, Tea, and Spices., Chakraverty A, Mujumdar AS, Raghavan GSV, Rawaswamy HS (ed), Marcel Dekker, New York, Ch 23, p 653–695

    Google Scholar 

  28. Gunasekaran S (1998) Pulsed microwave-vacuum drying of food materials. Drying Technol 17(3):395–412

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hall CW (1996) Expanding opportunities in drying research and development. Drying Technol 14:1419–1427

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hammami C, Rene F (1997) Determination of freeze drying process variables for strawberries. J Food Eng 32:133–154

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hawkes J, Flink JM (1978) Osmotic concentration of fruit slices prior to dehydration. J Food Process Preserv 2:265–267

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Hawlader MNA, Perera CO, Tian M (2006) Properties of modified atmosphere heat pump dried foods. J Food Eng 74:392–401

    Google Scholar 

  33. Hogan MR, Ayers DL, Muller Jr RE, Foster GH, Rall EC, Doering OC (1983) Heat pump for low-temperature grain drying. Trans ASAE 26:1234–1238

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hsuch L, Chen W, Weng YM, Tseng CHY (2003) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of yam as affected by drying methods. Food Chem 83:85–92

    Google Scholar 

  35. Inyang UE, Ike CI (1998) Effect of blanching, dehydration method, temperature on the ascorbic acid, color, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit. Int J Food Sci Nutr 49:125–130

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Islam M N, Flink J N (1982) Dehydration of potato II. Osmotic concentration and its effects on air drying behaviour. J Food Technol 17:387–403

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Jayaraman KS, Gupta DK (1992) Dehydration of fruit and vegetables-recent developments in principles and techniques. Drying Technol 10:1–50

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Kadam DM, Samuel DVK, Chandra P, Sikarwar HS (2008) Impact of processing treatment and packaging material on some proteins of stored dehydrated cauliflower. Int J Food Sci Technol 43(1):1–14

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Kaminski E, Wasowicz E, Zawirska R, Wower M (1986) The effect of drying and storage of dried carrot on sensory characteristics and volatile constituents. Nahrung 30:819–828

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Khin MM, Zhou W, Perera C (2005) Development in combined treatment of coating and osmotic dehydration of food-A review. Int J Food Eng 1:1–19

    Google Scholar 

  41. Khraisheh MAM, McMinn WAM, Magee TRA (2004) Quality and structural changes in starchy foods during microwave and convective drying. Food Res Int 37:497–503

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Kohayakawa MN, Silveira-Júnior V, Telis-Romero J (2004) Drying of mango slices using heat pump dryer. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, Vol B, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 884–891

  43. Krokida MK, Maroulis ZB, Saravacos GD (2001) The effect of method of drying on colour of dehydrated product. Int J Food Sci Technol 36:53–59

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Kumar HSD, Radhakrishna K, Nagaraju PK, Rao DV (2001) Effect of combination drying on physico-chemical charcterestics of carrot and pumpkin. J Food Process Preserv 25:447–460

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Kumar PS, Sagar VR, Singh U (2006) Effect of tray load on drying kinetics of mango, guava and aonla. J Sci Ind Res 65:659–664

    Google Scholar 

  46. Lai FC, Sharma RK (2005) EHD-enhanced drying with multiple needle electrode. J Electrostatics 63:223–237

    Google Scholar 

  47. Lazarides HN, Katsanidis E, Nickolaidis A (1995) Mass transfer kinetics during osmotic preconcentration aiming at minimal solid uptake. J Food Eng 25:151–156

    Google Scholar 

  48. Leeratamark N, Devahastio S, Chiewchan N (2006) Drying kinetics and quality of potato chips undergoing different drying techniques. J Food Eng 77:635–638

    Google Scholar 

  49. Le Maguer M (1998) Osmotic dehydration: review and future directions. Proc Int Symp Progress in Food Preservation Processes, CERIA, Bruxelles, Belgium, 12–14 April, p 283–309

  50. Lenart A (1996) Osmo convective drying of fruits and vegetables: Technology and Application. Drying Technol 14:391–413

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Lenart A, Flink JM (1984) Osmotic concentration of potato-I: Criteria for the end of point of the osmosis process. J Food Sci Technol 19:45–48

    Google Scholar 

  52. Lerici CL, Pinnavaia G, Dalla Rosa M, Bartolucci L (1985) Osmotic dehydration of fruit: Influence of osmotic agents on drying behaviour and product quality. J Food Sci 50: 1217–1219

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Lewicki PP (1998) Effect of pre-drying treatment, drying and rehydration on plant tissue properties: a review. Int J Food Prop 1:1–22

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Lovedeep K, Narpinder S, Navdeep SS (2002) Some properties of potatoes and their starches II. Marphological, reheological properties of starches. Food Chem 79:183–192

    Google Scholar 

  55. Master K (2004) Current market driven spray drying activities. Drying Technol 22:1351–1370

    Google Scholar 

  56. Masters K (1991) Spray drying. Hand book, 5th edn, Longman group Ltd, New York

    Google Scholar 

  57. Mayor L, Sereno AM (2004) Modelling shrinkage during convective drying of food materials. J Food Eng 61:373–386

    Google Scholar 

  58. Meda L, Ratti C (2005) Rehydration of freeze dried strawberries at varying temperature. J Food Process Eng 28:233–246

    Google Scholar 

  59. Meda SV, Raghavan GSV (2004) An overview of microwave processing and dielectric properties of agri-food materials. Biosystem Eng 88:1–18

    Google Scholar 

  60. Mohamed S, Hussein R (1994) Effect of low temperature blanching, cysteine-HCl, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Na metabisulphite and drying temperatures on the firmness and nutrient content of dried carrots. J Food Process Preserv 18:343–348

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Nijhuis HH, Torringa HM, Muresan S, Yukel D, Leguijt C, Kloek W (1998) Approaches to improving the quality of dried fruits and vegetables. Tr Food Sci Technol 9:13–20

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Nindo CI, Sun T, Wang SW, Tang J, Powers JR (2003) Evaluation of drying technologies for retention of physical quality and antioxidants in asparagus. Lebens Wissen Technol 36:507–516

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Nsonzi F, Ramaswamy HS (1998) Osmotic dehydration kinetics of blueberries. Drying Technol 16:725–741

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Okos MR, Narsimhan SRK, Weitnauer AC (1992) Food dehydration. In: Handbook of food engineering, Heldman DR, Lund DB (ed), Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, p 437–562

    Google Scholar 

  65. Orsat V, Changrue V, Raghavan GSV (2006) Microwave drying of fruits and vegetables. Stewart Post-Harvest Rev 6:4–9

    Google Scholar 

  66. Orsat V, Raghavan V, Meda V (2005) Microwave technology for food processing: an overview. In: The microwave processing of foods, Schubert H, Regier M (ed), Woodhead Publ, Cambridge, England, p 105–118

    Google Scholar 

  67. Osepchuk JM (2002) Microwave power applications. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Technol 50:975–985

    Google Scholar 

  68. Paakkonen K, Mattila M (1991) Processing, packaging and storage effects on quality of freeze dried strawberries. J Food Sci 56:1388–1392

    Google Scholar 

  69. Peleg M (1996) On modelling changes in food and biosolids at and around their Tg temperature range. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36:49–67

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Perera CO (2005) Selected quality attributes of dried foods. Drying Technol 23:717–730

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Piotrowski D, Lenart A, Wardzynski A (2004) Influence of osmotic dehydration on microwave-convective drying of frozen strawberries. J Food Eng 65(4):519–525

    Google Scholar 

  72. Queiroz R, Gabas AL, Telis VRN (2004) Drying kinetics of tomato by using electric resistance and heat pump dryers. Drying Technol 22:1603–1620

    Google Scholar 

  73. Raghavan GSV, Orsat V (1998) Electro-technology in drying and processing of biological materials. Keynote presentation at 11th Int Drying Symp (IDS 98), Halkididi, Greece 19–22 August, P 456–463

  74. Raghavan GSV, Rennie TJ, Sunjka PS, Orsat V, Phaphuangwittayakul W, Terdtoon P (2005) Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials with emphasis on energy aspects. Braz J Chem Eng Cem 22:195–201

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Rahman MS (2001) Toward prediction of porosity in foods during drying: a brief review. Drying Technol 19:1–13

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Rahman MS, Labuza TP (1999) Water activity and food preservation. In: Handbook of food preservation, Rahman MS (ed), Marcel Dekker, New York, p 339–382

    Google Scholar 

  77. Rahman MS, Perera CO (1999) Drying and food preservation. In: Handbook of food preservation. Rahman MS (ed). Marcel Dekker: New York, p 173–216

    Google Scholar 

  78. Rahman MS, Guizani N, Al-Ruzeiki MH, Al-Khalasi S (2000) Microflora changes in tunas during convection air drying. Drying Technol 18:2369–2379

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Ramesh MN, Wolf Tevini D, Jung G (2001) Influence of processing parameters on the drying of spice paprika. J Food Eng 49: 63–72

    Google Scholar 

  80. Rastogi NK, Eshiaghi MN, Knorr D (1999) Accelerated mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of high intensity electrical fields pulse pretreated carrots. J Food Sci 64:1020–1023

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Rastogi NK, Niranjan K (2008) Enhanced mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of high pressure treated pineapple. J Food Sci 63:508–511

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rastogi NK, Raghavarao KSMS (2004) Mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of pineapple: Considering Fickian diffusion in cubical configuration. Lebens Wissen Technol 37:43–47

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Ratti C (2005) Freeze drying of plant products: where we are and where we are heading to. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:5–12

    Google Scholar 

  84. Regaldo C, Blanca E, Garcia-Alimendarez, Miguel A, Durale-Vazquez. (2004) Biotechnological applications of peroxidises. Phytochem Rev 3:243–256

    Google Scholar 

  85. Regier M, Mayer-Miebach E, Behsnilian D, Neff E, Schuchmann HP (2005) Influences of drying and storage of lycopenerich carrots on the carotenoid content. Drying Technol 23:989–998

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Sablani SS (2006a) Drying of fruits and vegetables: retention of nutritional/functional quality. Drying Technol 24:428–432

    Google Scholar 

  87. Sablani SS (2006b) Food quality attributes in drying. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 2:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  88. Sablani SS, Rahman MS (2002) Pore formation in selected foods as a function of shelf temperature during freeze drying. Drying Technol 20:1379–1391

    Google Scholar 

  89. Sagar VR, Kumar PS (2007) Processing of guava in the form of dehydrated slices and leather. Acta Hort 735:579–589

    Google Scholar 

  90. Saguy IS, Marabi A, Wallach R (2004) Water imbibition in dry porous foods. Proc 9th Int Conf on Engineering & Food Montpellier, France, 7–11 April, p 147–152

  91. Salunke DK, Bolin HR, Reddy NR (1991) Dehydration. In: Storage, processing and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables, 2nd edn, Vol II, Processed fruits and vegetables, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, p 49–98

    Google Scholar 

  92. Seco JIF-G, Seco JJF-G, Prieto EH, Garcìa MC (2004) EEvaluation at industrial scale of electric-driven heat pump dryers (HPD). Holz Roh Werkst 62:261–267

    Google Scholar 

  93. Sharma GP, Prasad S (2006) Optimization of process parameters for microwave drying of garlic cloves. J Food Eng 75:441–446

    Google Scholar 

  94. Shi JX, Le Maguer M, Wang SL, Liptay A (1997) Application of osmotic treatment in tomato processing-effect of skin treatments on mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of tomatoes. Food Res Int 30:669–674

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Shishegarha F, Mackhlouf J, Ratti C (2002) Freeze drying charcterestics of strawberries. Drying Technol 20:131–145

    Google Scholar 

  96. Singh U, Sagar VR, Behera TK, Kumar PS (2006) Effect of drying conditions on the quality of dehydrated selected vegetables. J Food Sci Technol 43:579–582

    Google Scholar 

  97. Soysal Y, Oztekin S, Eren O (2006) Microwave drying of parsley modeling, kinetics and energy aspects. Biosyst Eng 93:403–413

    Google Scholar 

  98. Sunjka PS, Raghavan GSV (2004) Assessment of pretreatment methods and osmotic dehydration of cranberries. Can Biosyst Eng 4:.35–40

    Google Scholar 

  99. Taiwo KA, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2002) Influence of high intensity electric field pulses and osmotic dehydration on the rehydration characteristics of apple slices at different temperatures. J Food Eng 52:185–192

    Google Scholar 

  100. Taiwo KA, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2003) Effects of pulsed electric field on quality factors and mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apples. J Food Process Eng 26:31–48

    Google Scholar 

  101. Talens P, Hartong S, Martinez-Navarrete N, Chiralt A, Fito P (2000) Kinetics and equilibrium status in osmotic dehydration of strawberry. Proc 12th Int Drying Symp (IDS) 2000”, paper 101, Elsevier Sci Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  102. Tan M, Chua KJ, Majumder AS, Chou SK (2001) Effect of osmotic pre treatment and infra red radiation on drying and colour changes during drying of potato and pineapple. Drying Technol 19:2193–2207

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Tatemoto Y, Yano S, Mawatart Y, Noda K, Komatsu N (2007) Drying characteristics of porous material immersed in a bed glass beads fluedized by superheated steam under reduced pressure. Chem Eng Sci 62:471–480

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. Tedjo W, Eshiaghi MN, Knorr D (2002) Impact of non-thermal processing on plant metabolities. J Food Eng 56:131–134

    Google Scholar 

  105. Tein ML, Timothy DD, Christine HS (1998) Characterization of vacuum microwave, air and freeze dried carrot slices. Food Res Int 31:111–117

    Google Scholar 

  106. Tulasidas TN, Raghavan GSV, Mujumdar AS (1995a) Microwave drying of grapes in a single mode cavity at 2450 MHz. I. Drying kinetics. Drying Technol 13:1949–1971

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Tulasidas TN, Raghavan GSV, Mujumdar AS (1995b) Microwave drying of grapes in a single mode cavity at 2450 MHz. II: Quality and energy aspects. Drying Technol 13:1973–1992

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. Uddin MS, Hawlader MNA, Hui X (2004) A comparative study on heat pump, microwave and freeze drying of fresh fruits. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, Vol C, p 2035–2042

    Google Scholar 

  109. Venkatachalapathy K, Raghavan GSV (1999) Combined osmotic and microwave drying of strawberry. Drying Technol 17:837–853

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Wang J, Xi YS (2005) Drying characteristics and drying quality of carrot using a two-stage microwave process. J Food Eng 68:505–511

    Google Scholar 

  111. Wang W, Thorat BN, Chen G, Majumdar AS (2002) Fluidized bed drying of heat sensitive porous material with microwave heating. Proc 13th Int Drying Symp, Beijing, China, 27–30 August, Vol B, p 901–908

    Google Scholar 

  112. Watanabe E, Ciacco CF (1990) Influence of processing and cooking on the retention of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in spaghetti. Food Chem 36:223–231

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Xian-Ju S, Minzhang, Arun SM (2007) Effect of vacuum microwave predrying quality of vacuum-fried potat chips. Drying Technol 25:2021–2026

    Google Scholar 

  114. Zhong T, Lima M (2003) The effect of Ohmic heating or vacuum drying rate of sweet potato tissue. Bioresour Technol 87:215–220

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. R. Sagar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sagar, V.R., Suresh Kumar, P. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review. J Food Sci Technol 47, 15–26 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0010-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Superheated steam drying
  • Heat pump drying
  • Fruits and vegetable dehydration
  • Freeze drying
  • Spray drying
  • Pulsed electric field