Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 15–26 | Cite as

Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

  • V. R. Sagar
  • P. Suresh Kumar
Review Article

Abstract

Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying time and cause minimum damage to the product. To reduce the energy utilization and operational cost new dimensions came up in drying techniques. Among the technologies osmotic dehydration, vacuum drying, freeze drying, superheated steam drying, heat pump drying and spray drying have great scope for the production of quality dried products and powders.

Keywords

Superheated steam drying Heat pump drying Fruits and vegetable dehydration Freeze drying Spray drying Pulsed electric field 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achanta S, Okos MR (1996) Predicting the quality of dehydrated foods and biopolymers-research needs and opportunities. Drying Technol 14:1329–1368Google Scholar
  2. Achariyaviriya A, Tiansuwan J, Soponronnarit S (2002) Energy optimization of whole longan drying. Simulation results. Int J Ambient energy 23:212–220Google Scholar
  3. Ade-Omowaye BIO, Taiwo KA, Eshtiaghi NM, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2003) Comparative evaluation of the effects of pulsed electric field and freezing on cell membrane permeabilisation and mass transfer during dehydration of red bell peppers. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 4:177–188Google Scholar
  4. Alves-Filho O, García-Pascual P, Eikevik TM, Strømmen I (2004) Dehydration of green peas under atmospheric freeze-drying conditions. Proc 14th Int Drying Sym, Vol C, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 1521–1528Google Scholar
  5. Azura E, Garcia HS, Beristain C I (1996) Effect of centrifugal force on osmotic dehydration of potatoes and apples. Food Res Int 29:195–199Google Scholar
  6. Beaudry C, Raghvan GSV, Rennie TJ (2003) Micro wave finish drying of osmotically dehydrated cranberries. Drying Technol 21:1797–1810Google Scholar
  7. Beaudry C, Raghavan GSV, Ratti C, Rennie TJ (2004) Effect of four drying methods on the quality of osmotically dehydrated cranberries. Drying Technol 22:521–539Google Scholar
  8. Beker CGJ (2005) Energy efficiency in drying. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:8–12Google Scholar
  9. Bezyma LA, Kutovoy VA (2005) Vacuum drying and hybrid technologies. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:6–13Google Scholar
  10. Bolin HR, Huxsoll CC, Jackson R (1983) Effect of osmotic agents and concentration on fruit quality. J Food Sci 48:202–205Google Scholar
  11. Brown M (1999) Focusing on freeze drying. Food Manuf 76(9):34–36Google Scholar
  12. Changrue V, Sunjka PS, Gariepy Y, Raghavan GSV, Wang N (2004) Realtime control of microwave drying process. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp Sao Paulo, Brazil 22–25 August, p 1532–1542Google Scholar
  13. Chou SK, Chua KJ (2001) New hybrid drying technologies for heat sensitive foodstuffs. Tr Food Sci Technol 12:359–369Google Scholar
  14. Chua KJ, Majumdar AS, Chou SK (2003) Intermittent drying of bioproducts. An Overview Bioresour Technol 90:285–295Google Scholar
  15. Chua KJ, Mujumdar AS, Chou SK, Hawlader MNA, Ho JC (2000) Convective drying of banana, guava and potato pieces: effect of cyclical variations of air temperature on drying kinetics and color change. Drying Technol 18:907–936Google Scholar
  16. Cinar I (2004) Carotenoid pigment loss of freeze-dried plant samples under different storage conditions. Food Sci Technol 37:363–367Google Scholar
  17. Conwoy J, Castaigne F, Picard G, Vovau X (1983) Mass transfer considerations in the osmotic dehydration of apples. Can Inst Food Sci Technol 16:25–29Google Scholar
  18. Cui ZW, Xu SY, Sun DW (2003) Dehydration of garlic slices by combined microwave vacuum and air drying. Drying Technol 21:1173–1184Google Scholar
  19. Donsi G, Ferrari G, Nigro R, Maltero PD (1998) Combination of mild dehydration and freeze drying processes to obtain high quality dried vegetables and fruits. Trans, IChemE 76:181–187Google Scholar
  20. Drouzas AE, Schubert H (1996) Microwave application in vacuum drying of fruit. J Food Eng 28:203–209Google Scholar
  21. Erle U (2005) Drying using microwave processing. In: The microwave processing of foods. Schubert H, Regier M (ed), Woodhead Publ, Cambridge, England, p 142–152Google Scholar
  22. Feng H, Tang J, Mattinson DS, Fellman JK (1999) Microwave and spouted bed drying of frozen blue berries. J Food Process Preserv 23:463–479Google Scholar
  23. Filkova I, Majumdar AS (1995) Industrial spray system. In: Hand book of industrial drying, Majumdar AS (ed), Marcel Dekkar Inc, New York, p 263–307Google Scholar
  24. Fito P, Chiralt A, Barat J M, Andres A, Martinez-Monzo J Martinez-Navarrete N (2001) Vacuum impregnation for development of new dehydrated products. J Food Eng 49:297–302Google Scholar
  25. Gabas AL, Bernardi M, Telis-Romero J, Telis VRN (2004) Application of heat pump in drying of apple cylinders. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, Vol C, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 1922–1929Google Scholar
  26. George SD, Cenkowski S, Muir WE (2004) A review of drying technologies for the preservation of nutritional compounds in waxy skinned fruit. North Central ASAE/CSAE Conf, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 24–25 September, MB 04-104Google Scholar
  27. Grabowski S, Marcotte M, Ramaswamy HS (2003) Drying of fruits, vegetables, and spices. In: Handbook of Postharvest Technology: Cereals, Fruits, Vegetables, Tea, and Spices., Chakraverty A, Mujumdar AS, Raghavan GSV, Rawaswamy HS (ed), Marcel Dekker, New York, Ch 23, p 653–695Google Scholar
  28. Gunasekaran S (1998) Pulsed microwave-vacuum drying of food materials. Drying Technol 17(3):395–412Google Scholar
  29. Hall CW (1996) Expanding opportunities in drying research and development. Drying Technol 14:1419–1427Google Scholar
  30. Hammami C, Rene F (1997) Determination of freeze drying process variables for strawberries. J Food Eng 32:133–154Google Scholar
  31. Hawkes J, Flink JM (1978) Osmotic concentration of fruit slices prior to dehydration. J Food Process Preserv 2:265–267Google Scholar
  32. Hawlader MNA, Perera CO, Tian M (2006) Properties of modified atmosphere heat pump dried foods. J Food Eng 74:392–401Google Scholar
  33. Hogan MR, Ayers DL, Muller Jr RE, Foster GH, Rall EC, Doering OC (1983) Heat pump for low-temperature grain drying. Trans ASAE 26:1234–1238Google Scholar
  34. Hsuch L, Chen W, Weng YM, Tseng CHY (2003) Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of yam as affected by drying methods. Food Chem 83:85–92Google Scholar
  35. Inyang UE, Ike CI (1998) Effect of blanching, dehydration method, temperature on the ascorbic acid, color, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit. Int J Food Sci Nutr 49:125–130Google Scholar
  36. Islam M N, Flink J N (1982) Dehydration of potato II. Osmotic concentration and its effects on air drying behaviour. J Food Technol 17:387–403Google Scholar
  37. Jayaraman KS, Gupta DK (1992) Dehydration of fruit and vegetables-recent developments in principles and techniques. Drying Technol 10:1–50Google Scholar
  38. Kadam DM, Samuel DVK, Chandra P, Sikarwar HS (2008) Impact of processing treatment and packaging material on some proteins of stored dehydrated cauliflower. Int J Food Sci Technol 43(1):1–14Google Scholar
  39. Kaminski E, Wasowicz E, Zawirska R, Wower M (1986) The effect of drying and storage of dried carrot on sensory characteristics and volatile constituents. Nahrung 30:819–828Google Scholar
  40. Khin MM, Zhou W, Perera C (2005) Development in combined treatment of coating and osmotic dehydration of food-A review. Int J Food Eng 1:1–19Google Scholar
  41. Khraisheh MAM, McMinn WAM, Magee TRA (2004) Quality and structural changes in starchy foods during microwave and convective drying. Food Res Int 37:497–503Google Scholar
  42. Kohayakawa MN, Silveira-Júnior V, Telis-Romero J (2004) Drying of mango slices using heat pump dryer. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, Vol B, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, p 884–891Google Scholar
  43. Krokida MK, Maroulis ZB, Saravacos GD (2001) The effect of method of drying on colour of dehydrated product. Int J Food Sci Technol 36:53–59Google Scholar
  44. Kumar HSD, Radhakrishna K, Nagaraju PK, Rao DV (2001) Effect of combination drying on physico-chemical charcterestics of carrot and pumpkin. J Food Process Preserv 25:447–460Google Scholar
  45. Kumar PS, Sagar VR, Singh U (2006) Effect of tray load on drying kinetics of mango, guava and aonla. J Sci Ind Res 65:659–664Google Scholar
  46. Lai FC, Sharma RK (2005) EHD-enhanced drying with multiple needle electrode. J Electrostatics 63:223–237Google Scholar
  47. Lazarides HN, Katsanidis E, Nickolaidis A (1995) Mass transfer kinetics during osmotic preconcentration aiming at minimal solid uptake. J Food Eng 25:151–156Google Scholar
  48. Leeratamark N, Devahastio S, Chiewchan N (2006) Drying kinetics and quality of potato chips undergoing different drying techniques. J Food Eng 77:635–638Google Scholar
  49. Le Maguer M (1998) Osmotic dehydration: review and future directions. Proc Int Symp Progress in Food Preservation Processes, CERIA, Bruxelles, Belgium, 12–14 April, p 283–309Google Scholar
  50. Lenart A (1996) Osmo convective drying of fruits and vegetables: Technology and Application. Drying Technol 14:391–413Google Scholar
  51. Lenart A, Flink JM (1984) Osmotic concentration of potato-I: Criteria for the end of point of the osmosis process. J Food Sci Technol 19:45–48Google Scholar
  52. Lerici CL, Pinnavaia G, Dalla Rosa M, Bartolucci L (1985) Osmotic dehydration of fruit: Influence of osmotic agents on drying behaviour and product quality. J Food Sci 50: 1217–1219Google Scholar
  53. Lewicki PP (1998) Effect of pre-drying treatment, drying and rehydration on plant tissue properties: a review. Int J Food Prop 1:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lovedeep K, Narpinder S, Navdeep SS (2002) Some properties of potatoes and their starches II. Marphological, reheological properties of starches. Food Chem 79:183–192Google Scholar
  55. Master K (2004) Current market driven spray drying activities. Drying Technol 22:1351–1370Google Scholar
  56. Masters K (1991) Spray drying. Hand book, 5th edn, Longman group Ltd, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayor L, Sereno AM (2004) Modelling shrinkage during convective drying of food materials. J Food Eng 61:373–386Google Scholar
  58. Meda L, Ratti C (2005) Rehydration of freeze dried strawberries at varying temperature. J Food Process Eng 28:233–246Google Scholar
  59. Meda SV, Raghavan GSV (2004) An overview of microwave processing and dielectric properties of agri-food materials. Biosystem Eng 88:1–18Google Scholar
  60. Mohamed S, Hussein R (1994) Effect of low temperature blanching, cysteine-HCl, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Na metabisulphite and drying temperatures on the firmness and nutrient content of dried carrots. J Food Process Preserv 18:343–348Google Scholar
  61. Nijhuis HH, Torringa HM, Muresan S, Yukel D, Leguijt C, Kloek W (1998) Approaches to improving the quality of dried fruits and vegetables. Tr Food Sci Technol 9:13–20Google Scholar
  62. Nindo CI, Sun T, Wang SW, Tang J, Powers JR (2003) Evaluation of drying technologies for retention of physical quality and antioxidants in asparagus. Lebens Wissen Technol 36:507–516Google Scholar
  63. Nsonzi F, Ramaswamy HS (1998) Osmotic dehydration kinetics of blueberries. Drying Technol 16:725–741Google Scholar
  64. Okos MR, Narsimhan SRK, Weitnauer AC (1992) Food dehydration. In: Handbook of food engineering, Heldman DR, Lund DB (ed), Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, p 437–562Google Scholar
  65. Orsat V, Changrue V, Raghavan GSV (2006) Microwave drying of fruits and vegetables. Stewart Post-Harvest Rev 6:4–9Google Scholar
  66. Orsat V, Raghavan V, Meda V (2005) Microwave technology for food processing: an overview. In: The microwave processing of foods, Schubert H, Regier M (ed), Woodhead Publ, Cambridge, England, p 105–118Google Scholar
  67. Osepchuk JM (2002) Microwave power applications. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Technol 50:975–985Google Scholar
  68. Paakkonen K, Mattila M (1991) Processing, packaging and storage effects on quality of freeze dried strawberries. J Food Sci 56:1388–1392Google Scholar
  69. Peleg M (1996) On modelling changes in food and biosolids at and around their Tg temperature range. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36:49–67Google Scholar
  70. Perera CO (2005) Selected quality attributes of dried foods. Drying Technol 23:717–730Google Scholar
  71. Piotrowski D, Lenart A, Wardzynski A (2004) Influence of osmotic dehydration on microwave-convective drying of frozen strawberries. J Food Eng 65(4):519–525Google Scholar
  72. Queiroz R, Gabas AL, Telis VRN (2004) Drying kinetics of tomato by using electric resistance and heat pump dryers. Drying Technol 22:1603–1620Google Scholar
  73. Raghavan GSV, Orsat V (1998) Electro-technology in drying and processing of biological materials. Keynote presentation at 11th Int Drying Symp (IDS 98), Halkididi, Greece 19–22 August, P 456–463Google Scholar
  74. Raghavan GSV, Rennie TJ, Sunjka PS, Orsat V, Phaphuangwittayakul W, Terdtoon P (2005) Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials with emphasis on energy aspects. Braz J Chem Eng Cem 22:195–201Google Scholar
  75. Rahman MS (2001) Toward prediction of porosity in foods during drying: a brief review. Drying Technol 19:1–13Google Scholar
  76. Rahman MS, Labuza TP (1999) Water activity and food preservation. In: Handbook of food preservation, Rahman MS (ed), Marcel Dekker, New York, p 339–382Google Scholar
  77. Rahman MS, Perera CO (1999) Drying and food preservation. In: Handbook of food preservation. Rahman MS (ed). Marcel Dekker: New York, p 173–216Google Scholar
  78. Rahman MS, Guizani N, Al-Ruzeiki MH, Al-Khalasi S (2000) Microflora changes in tunas during convection air drying. Drying Technol 18:2369–2379Google Scholar
  79. Ramesh MN, Wolf Tevini D, Jung G (2001) Influence of processing parameters on the drying of spice paprika. J Food Eng 49: 63–72Google Scholar
  80. Rastogi NK, Eshiaghi MN, Knorr D (1999) Accelerated mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of high intensity electrical fields pulse pretreated carrots. J Food Sci 64:1020–1023Google Scholar
  81. Rastogi NK, Niranjan K (2008) Enhanced mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of high pressure treated pineapple. J Food Sci 63:508–511Google Scholar
  82. Rastogi NK, Raghavarao KSMS (2004) Mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of pineapple: Considering Fickian diffusion in cubical configuration. Lebens Wissen Technol 37:43–47Google Scholar
  83. Ratti C (2005) Freeze drying of plant products: where we are and where we are heading to. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 4:5–12Google Scholar
  84. Regaldo C, Blanca E, Garcia-Alimendarez, Miguel A, Durale-Vazquez. (2004) Biotechnological applications of peroxidises. Phytochem Rev 3:243–256Google Scholar
  85. Regier M, Mayer-Miebach E, Behsnilian D, Neff E, Schuchmann HP (2005) Influences of drying and storage of lycopenerich carrots on the carotenoid content. Drying Technol 23:989–998Google Scholar
  86. Sablani SS (2006a) Drying of fruits and vegetables: retention of nutritional/functional quality. Drying Technol 24:428–432Google Scholar
  87. Sablani SS (2006b) Food quality attributes in drying. Stewart Post-harvest Rev 2:1–5Google Scholar
  88. Sablani SS, Rahman MS (2002) Pore formation in selected foods as a function of shelf temperature during freeze drying. Drying Technol 20:1379–1391Google Scholar
  89. Sagar VR, Kumar PS (2007) Processing of guava in the form of dehydrated slices and leather. Acta Hort 735:579–589Google Scholar
  90. Saguy IS, Marabi A, Wallach R (2004) Water imbibition in dry porous foods. Proc 9th Int Conf on Engineering & Food Montpellier, France, 7–11 April, p 147–152Google Scholar
  91. Salunke DK, Bolin HR, Reddy NR (1991) Dehydration. In: Storage, processing and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables, 2nd edn, Vol II, Processed fruits and vegetables, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, p 49–98Google Scholar
  92. Seco JIF-G, Seco JJF-G, Prieto EH, Garcìa MC (2004) EEvaluation at industrial scale of electric-driven heat pump dryers (HPD). Holz Roh Werkst 62:261–267Google Scholar
  93. Sharma GP, Prasad S (2006) Optimization of process parameters for microwave drying of garlic cloves. J Food Eng 75:441–446Google Scholar
  94. Shi JX, Le Maguer M, Wang SL, Liptay A (1997) Application of osmotic treatment in tomato processing-effect of skin treatments on mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of tomatoes. Food Res Int 30:669–674Google Scholar
  95. Shishegarha F, Mackhlouf J, Ratti C (2002) Freeze drying charcterestics of strawberries. Drying Technol 20:131–145Google Scholar
  96. Singh U, Sagar VR, Behera TK, Kumar PS (2006) Effect of drying conditions on the quality of dehydrated selected vegetables. J Food Sci Technol 43:579–582Google Scholar
  97. Soysal Y, Oztekin S, Eren O (2006) Microwave drying of parsley modeling, kinetics and energy aspects. Biosyst Eng 93:403–413Google Scholar
  98. Sunjka PS, Raghavan GSV (2004) Assessment of pretreatment methods and osmotic dehydration of cranberries. Can Biosyst Eng 4:.35–40Google Scholar
  99. Taiwo KA, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2002) Influence of high intensity electric field pulses and osmotic dehydration on the rehydration characteristics of apple slices at different temperatures. J Food Eng 52:185–192Google Scholar
  100. Taiwo KA, Angersbach A, Knorr D (2003) Effects of pulsed electric field on quality factors and mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apples. J Food Process Eng 26:31–48Google Scholar
  101. Talens P, Hartong S, Martinez-Navarrete N, Chiralt A, Fito P (2000) Kinetics and equilibrium status in osmotic dehydration of strawberry. Proc 12th Int Drying Symp (IDS) 2000”, paper 101, Elsevier Sci Amsterdam, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  102. Tan M, Chua KJ, Majumder AS, Chou SK (2001) Effect of osmotic pre treatment and infra red radiation on drying and colour changes during drying of potato and pineapple. Drying Technol 19:2193–2207Google Scholar
  103. Tatemoto Y, Yano S, Mawatart Y, Noda K, Komatsu N (2007) Drying characteristics of porous material immersed in a bed glass beads fluedized by superheated steam under reduced pressure. Chem Eng Sci 62:471–480Google Scholar
  104. Tedjo W, Eshiaghi MN, Knorr D (2002) Impact of non-thermal processing on plant metabolities. J Food Eng 56:131–134Google Scholar
  105. Tein ML, Timothy DD, Christine HS (1998) Characterization of vacuum microwave, air and freeze dried carrot slices. Food Res Int 31:111–117Google Scholar
  106. Tulasidas TN, Raghavan GSV, Mujumdar AS (1995a) Microwave drying of grapes in a single mode cavity at 2450 MHz. I. Drying kinetics. Drying Technol 13:1949–1971Google Scholar
  107. Tulasidas TN, Raghavan GSV, Mujumdar AS (1995b) Microwave drying of grapes in a single mode cavity at 2450 MHz. II: Quality and energy aspects. Drying Technol 13:1973–1992Google Scholar
  108. Uddin MS, Hawlader MNA, Hui X (2004) A comparative study on heat pump, microwave and freeze drying of fresh fruits. Proc 14th Int Drying Symp, São Paulo, Brazil, 22–25 August, Vol C, p 2035–2042Google Scholar
  109. Venkatachalapathy K, Raghavan GSV (1999) Combined osmotic and microwave drying of strawberry. Drying Technol 17:837–853Google Scholar
  110. Wang J, Xi YS (2005) Drying characteristics and drying quality of carrot using a two-stage microwave process. J Food Eng 68:505–511Google Scholar
  111. Wang W, Thorat BN, Chen G, Majumdar AS (2002) Fluidized bed drying of heat sensitive porous material with microwave heating. Proc 13th Int Drying Symp, Beijing, China, 27–30 August, Vol B, p 901–908Google Scholar
  112. Watanabe E, Ciacco CF (1990) Influence of processing and cooking on the retention of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in spaghetti. Food Chem 36:223–231Google Scholar
  113. Xian-Ju S, Minzhang, Arun SM (2007) Effect of vacuum microwave predrying quality of vacuum-fried potat chips. Drying Technol 25:2021–2026Google Scholar
  114. Zhong T, Lima M (2003) The effect of Ohmic heating or vacuum drying rate of sweet potato tissue. Bioresour Technol 87:215–220Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Post-harvest TechnologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR RC NEH RegionAP CentreBasarIndia

Personalised recommendations