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Pre-induction Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Elective Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgeries

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Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during elective surgery remains a major cause of airway-related mortality and morbidity. The preoperative fasting times for solids and liquids have been standardized across various anesthesia society guidelines. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines now advocate liberal clear fluid intake with carbohydrate loading up to 2 h preoperatively. The aim of the study was to assess whether practicing both ASA fasting guidelines and ERAS protocol makes the patients prone to a full stomach. The supine position standard curvilinear ultrasound probe (2–5 MHz) with Sonosite M-Turbo ©system was used to obtain the images. Gastric residual volume (GRV) was derived from the cross-sectional area (CSA) using the Perlas and colleagues model. A total of 102 patients were recruited and analyzed. The mean age and BMI were 50.65 years ± 13.35 years and 22.23 kg/m2 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively. A total of four patients (3.92%) had gastric volume > 1.5 ml/kg; out of these four patients, three were female and one was male. We did not observe any case of pulmonary aspiration in any of our patients. In conclusion, even though for elective surgeries, the current fasting guidelines are adequate, these findings cannot be extrapolated to patients with risk factors for high gastric residual volume where further studies need to be performed.

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Correspondence to Reshma Ambulkar.

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Ambulkar, R., Manampadi, U., Bhosale, S. et al. Pre-induction Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Elective Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgeries. Indian J Surg Oncol 12, 841–846 (2021).

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