Multiple Gastrointestinal Cancers in a Single Patient—a Rare Clinical Entity
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Multiple gastrointestinal cancers in a single patient is a rare entity. In our study, we are showing the clinical presentation and management of these patients. A fifty-nine-year-old asthenic male (already treated case of metachronous colorectal cancer in 2008 and 2011) presented with complaints of generalized weakness and fatigue. Strong family history was present with two of his first-degree relatives having diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer at the age < 50 years with one of them having stomach carcinoma and another with GEJ tumors. On evaluation, upper GI endoscopy revealed growth at cardia and endoscopic biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. Radiological evaluation with PET-CT scan revealed proximal stomach growth with regional lymphadenopathy. Patient was optimized for surgery and underwent D2 total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy with Roux-en-Y oesophago-jejunal anastomosis. Pathological stage revealed pT4N2M0, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of proximal stomach, both distal and proximal cut margins negative for tumor, LVI present with no perineural invasion, and 5/18 lymph nodes dissected were positive for malignancy. Genetic testing needs to be considered in this patient (modified Bethesda guidelines and IGCLC criteria). Familial gastric cancer are of two types: (a) hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome, (b) familial intestinal type gastric cancer. Approximately 5% of patients have germ-line mutations—AD LYNCH syndrome, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, and polyposis and non-polyposis syndrome. Once diagnosed in localized advanced stage, the best treatment is R0 resection though overall prognosis in these patients is very poor. So it is rationale to find such families with elevated risk and to do active surveillance for early diagnosis and providing prophylactic gastrectomies to them as it has proven to be beneficial in hereditary form of gastric cancer.
KeywordsMSI Multiple gastrointestinal tract cancer HDGS
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