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Germ Cell Tumor Ovary: an Institutional Experience of Treatment and Survival Outcomes

Abstract

Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary account for 2–3% of all ovarian neoplasms and occur mostly in the second and third decade of life. Over the past three decades, survival rates for germ cell tumors have dramatically improved, coincident with more aggressive surgical staging and combination chemotherapy. Although there are several studies describing ovarian GCT and fertility-preserving surgery in the western population, there is very little Indian data. We present our experience of germ cell tumor ovary in the Department of Surgical Oncology, King George’s Medical University over the last 5 years with special emphasis on treatment outcome and role of fertility preservation surgery. A retrospective review of medical records of patients with ovarian germ cell tumors, treated at our center from January 2012 to December 2016, was performed. Epidemiological and clinical profile of patients was reviewed. Clinical stage of presentation, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical treatment, and adjuvant treatment data were analyzed, and treatment outcome data was recorded. Patient follow-up was done to ascertain disease-free interval, treatment outcome, ability to conceive following fertility-preserving surgery, and quality of life. A total of 39 patients with ovarian germ cell tumor were treated during this period. Their median age at diagnosis was 22 years (range 11–65 years) and most common mode of presentation was abdominal lump without ascites. Around 36.8% (n = 14) patients had conservative surgery with preservation of opposite ovary and uterus. Most patients (71.1% n = 27) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy due to advanced disease in form of ascites or large mass, and five of these patients were amenable to fertility-preserving surgery after chemotherapy. Nine out of the fourteen patients have had return of menstrual function after a mean period of 3.5 + 0.5 months. One patient who underwent fertility-preserving surgery has delivered healthy children after treatment. Stage distribution for stage I to IV was as follows: 15.4% (n = 6), 35.9% (n = 14), 46.2% (n = 18), and 2.6% (n = 1), respectively. Dysgerminoma was the commonest histology (37.1% n = 13) followed by teratoma (22.9% n = 8). 17.1% (n = 6) patients had recurrence, with a median time to recurrence 16 months (range 5.5 to 37 months) and they were treated with second-line chemotherapy. Germ cell tumor of the ovary is an eminently treatable disease and selected patients can be managed with fertility-preserving surgery. BEP is the most effective chemotherapy regimen. Disease-free survival rates in these patients are quite high and recurrences can be managed with second-line chemotherapy.

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Correspondence to Sameer Gupta.

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Lakshmanan, M., Gupta, S., Kumar, V. et al. Germ Cell Tumor Ovary: an Institutional Experience of Treatment and Survival Outcomes. Indian J Surg Oncol 9, 215–219 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-018-0742-x

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Keywords

  • Germ cell tumors (GCT)
  • Fertility-preserving surgery
  • Neoadjuvant
  • Chemotherapy