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Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India

Abstract

One of the criteria for recommending cholecystectomy for silent gall stones, is gall stones in regions with high incidence of gall bladder cancer. Both gall stones and gall bladder cancer are common in North India. All tertiary care centres in India report high rates of gall bladder cancer (GBC) incidence and poor treatment outcomes in the majority of cases due to advanced stage of presentation. Csendes of Chile has reported very high incidence of gallbladder cancer in Chile and Bolivia and advocated prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients. Incidence rate of gall bladder cancer in Indian males is equal to that of Chile, whereas in females, the rates are almost double the rates of Chile. Indians have also been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals in gall bladder wall, and antibodies to tumor suppressor genes. In India, gall bladder cancer is the commonest GI cancer in women and fourth commonest cancer overall in the female population. In view of the epidemiology and clinical scenario of gall bladder cancer and proven safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is a need to act before it is too late in the current rates of gall bladder cancer. This study looks at the evidence correlating gall stones and gall bladder cancer, in relation to India. There is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy in silent gall stones in North India. Data for this study was selected through an internet based search for literature concerning gall stones and gall bladder cancer in India, and for prophylactic cholecystectomy.

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Correspondence to Alok Vardhan Mathur.

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Key Messages

In view of the high incidence and poor treatment outcomes, of gall bladder cancer, there is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy for silent gall stones in India. It is disturbing, that in spite of having nearly the highest rates of incidence of gall bladder cancer in the entire world, very little is being discussed about it in Indian literature. Over the long term this will help to reduce the chance of disease progression from silent gall stones to advanced gall bladder cancer.

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Mathur, A.V. Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India. Indian J Surg Oncol 6, 251–255 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-015-0418-8

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Keywords

  • Gall bladder stones
  • Gall bladder cancer
  • India
  • Prophylactic cholecystectomy