Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 398–403 | Cite as

The Effect of Testicular Self-Examination Education on Knowledge, Performance, and Health Beliefs of Turkish Men

  • Hossein Asgar Pour
  • Dilara Kunter
  • Reza Norouzzadeh
  • Mohammad Reza Heidari


Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young adult men and easily detected at an early stage by periodic testicular self-examination (TSE); however, health care providers seldom teach TSE, thus opportunities for early detection are missed. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TSE education on the knowledge, performance, and health beliefs of Turkish young men. This quasi-experimental follow-up research was conducted on 174 male Health Science university students in Turkey. The data was collected by a modified socio-demographic form and questionnaire, and the Turkish version of Champion Health Belief Model Scale which was performed at two stages: before and 3 months after education. Before education, 66.2% of the students did not know anything about TSE, and the main reason for not to perform TSE was the lack of knowledge prior to education. The results showed a significant increase in the perceived benefits in terms of TSE after education (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a positive improvement in the behavior of the students toward TSE was observed after education. These results indicate that TSE training is effective in young men, but TSE training should be repeated periodically for better efficacy. These results support that health professionals should have a more active role in the training of adult young men in colleges in terms of TSE.


Testicular self-examination Education Knowledge Health beliefs 



The authors thank the students of the School of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


No specific grant for this research was received from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not for profit sectors.


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Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Asgar Pour
    • 1
  • Dilara Kunter
    • 1
  • Reza Norouzzadeh
    • 2
  • Mohammad Reza Heidari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgical Nursing, Aydin School of HealthAdnan Menderes UniversityAydınTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Midwifery and NursingShahed UniversityTehranIran

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