Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 269–277 | Cite as

Cancer Screening Perception Scale: Development and Construct Validation

  • Mohd Ihsani Mahmood
  • Shamsul Azhar Shah
  • Norfazilah Ahmad
  • Norazman Mohd Rosli


The aim of this study was to demonstrate the construct validity of a newly developed cancer screening perception scale as a measure of the perception of cancer screening in general among high-risk but healthy asymptomatic groups.

The cancer screening perception scale (CSPS) was developed based on extensive literature reviews guided by The Health Belief Model. Fifty-five written items were initially pooled, reviewed by experts for face validity, pretested by 25 healthcare workers and translated into Malay using simple back translation. The scale was then distributed to 300 respondents from two health clinics for construct validation purposes. The obtained data were analyzed using the varimax rotation method for exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The data was submitted for further confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS software.

Based on EFA, the results produced five constructs as predicted: perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues for action. Two items with low factor loading and unrelated to the recovered domains were removed. Perceived barriers and cues for action had three and two sub-domains respectively which were further confirmed to fit the measurement and structural models. CFA demonstrated the scale fitted GFI = 0.936, CFI = 0.935, RMSEA = 0.076, NORMEDCHISQ = 2.162. The scale discriminated between the domains. Cronbach’s alpha for perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barrier, and cues for action were 0.907, 0.877, 0.940, 0.864 and 0.938, respectively.

The cancer screening perception scale with its promising psychometric properties is now available to measure risks to high-risk but healthy, asymptomatic groups aged 18 and above and can also be used for larger scale study purposes.


Cancer screening perception scale Factor analysis Construct validation Psychometrics 



The research project was part of doctorate research which funded by the Peruntukan Dana Fundamental PPUKM with the Project Code FF-2015-348 and received ethical approval from the National Medical Research Centre of Malaysia with code approval NMRR-15-1399-26609 (IIR). A special thanks to those direct and indirectly involved in the research.


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Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Community Health Department, UKM Medical CenterNational University of Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob LatiffKuala LumpurMalaysia

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