Advertisement

Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 656–663 | Cite as

Students Meeting with Caregivers of Cancer Patient: Results of an Experience-Based Learning Project

  • Beste M. Atasoy
  • Ozlem SarikayaEmail author
  • M. Kemal Kuscu
  • Merve Yondem
  • Elif Buyukkara
  • E. Gokcen Eken
  • Figen Kahyaoglu
Article

Abstract

The communication between medical students and cancer caregivers, and the problems they have experienced as well as the outcomes for their professional development before starting clinical practice was assessed in the context of a student research project. Data were collected by questionnaires or by 20 to 40-min long interviews with cancer caregivers. Their communications with physicians, hearing the bad news, and health service satisfaction were questioned. Therefore, the caregivers trusted the professional approach of their physician. However, they expected more empathic communication in the process of diagnosis and therapy. Development of empathy and trust-based communication between patients and physicians and enhancement of the quality of devoted time to cancer patients and caregivers may have an effect on the course of disease. Interviewer students mentioned that they developed communication skills about difficult clinical tasks and in delivering bad news face to face to cancer caregivers before starting their clinical education.

Keywords

Action research Breaking bad news Cancer caregiver Experiential learning 

Notes

Conflicts of Interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest financial or non-financial.

References

  1. 1.
    DiBlasi Z, Harkness E, Ernst E, Georgiou A, Kleijnen J (2001) Influence of context effects on health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet 357:757–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stewart MA (1995) Effective physician–patient communication and health outcomes: a review. CMAJ 152:1423–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stewart M, Brown JB, Donner A, McWhinney IR, Oates J, Weston WW et al (2000) The impact of patient-centered care on outcomes. J Fam Pract 49:796–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Griffin SJ, Kinmouth A, Veltman M, Grant J, Stewart M (2004) Effect on health-related outcomes of interventions to alter the interaction between patients and practitioners: a systematic review of trials. Ann Fam Med 2:595–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Squier RW (1990) A model of empathic understanding and adherence to treatment regimens in practitioner–patient relationships. Soc Sci Med 30:325–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maguire P, Faulkner A, Booth K, Elliot C, Hiller V (1996) Helping cancer patients disclose their concerns. Eur J Cancer Care 32A:78–81Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coulehan J, Platt F, Egener B, Frankel R, Lin CT, Lown B et al (2001) “Let me see if I have this right …”. Words that build empathy. Ann Intern Med 135:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beckman HB, Frankel RM (2003) Training practitioners to communicate effectively in cancer care: it is the relationship that counts. Patient Educ Couns 50:85–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neumann M, Wirtz M, Bollschweiler E, Warm M, Wolf J, Pfaff H (2008) Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the “Consultation and Relational Empathy” (CARE) measure at the example of cancer patients [in German]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 58:5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Larson EB, Yao Y (2005) Clinical empathy as emotional labor in the patient–physician relationship. JAMA 293:1100–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Halpern J (2001) From detached concern to empathy: humanizing medical practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neumann M, Wirtz M, Bollschweiler E, Mercer SW, Warm M, Wolf J et al (2007) Determinants and patient-reported long-term outcomes of physician empathy in oncology: a structural equation modelling approach. Patient Educ Couns 69:63–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim SS, Kaplowitz S, Johnston MV (2004) The effects of physician empathy on patient satisfaction and compliance. Eval Health Prof 27:237–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roter DL, Stewart M, Putnam S, Lipkin MJ, Stiles W, Inui T (1997) Communication patterns of primary care physicians. JAMA 277:350–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levinson W, Gorawa-Bhat R, Lamb J (2000) A study of patient cues and physician responses in primary care and surgical settings. JAMA 284:1021–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mercer SW, Reynolds WJ (2002) Empathy and quality of care. Br J Gen Pract 52(suppl):S9–S13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Price S, Mercer SW, MacPherson H (2006) Practitioner empathy, patient enablement and health outcomes: a prospective study of acupuncture patients. Patient Educ Couns 63:239–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Association of American Medical Colleges (1999) Report I: Learning objectives for medical student education—guidelines for medical student education school. Acad Med 74:461–462Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frank JR (2005) The CanMEDS 2005 physician competency framework. Better standards. Better physicians. Better care. Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neumann M, Edelhauser F, Tauschel D, Fischer MR, Wirtz M, Woopen C et al (2011) Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Acad Med 86:996–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM) (2002) Project of The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation, The American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP–ASIM) Foundation, and The Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium A Physician Charter. Eur J Intern Med 13:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ebstein RM, Hundert EM (2002) Defining and assessing professional competence. JAMA 2:226–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    General Medical Council (2009) Tomorrow’s DoctorsGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldie J (2008) Integrating professionalism teaching into undergraduate medical education in the UK setting. Med Teach 30:513–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gulpinar MA, Akman M, User I (2009) A course, ‘The Human in Medicine’, as an example of a preclinical medical humanities program: a summary of 7 years. Med Teach 31:e469–e476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Horvath LE, Yoldan E, Malhotra D, Leyva I, Bortel K, Schalk D et al (2010) Multidisciplinary care in the oncology setting: historical perspective and data from lung and gynecology multidisciplinary clinics. J Oncol Pract 6:e21–e26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wiederholt PA, Cannor NP, Hartiq GK, Harari PM (2007) Bringing gaps in multidisciplinary head and neck cancer cure: nursing coordination and case management. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69:S88–S91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jansma FF, Schure LM, de Jong BM (2005) Support requirements for caregivers of patients with palliative cancer. Patient Educ Couns 58:182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kalnins I (2006) Caring for the terminally ill: experiences of Latvian family caregivers. Int Nurs Rev 53:129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kimberlin C, Brushwood D, Allen W, Radson E, Wilson D (2004) Cancer patient and caregiver experiences: communication and pain management issues. J Pain Symptom Manag 28:566–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferrance E (2000) Action research. LAB at Brown University The Education Alliance. http://www.lab.brown.edu/pubs/themes_ed/act_research.pdf Accessed 15 Sep 2011
  32. 32.
    Hendricks C (2006) Improving schools trough action research: a comprehensive guide for educators. Pearson Education, Inc., BostonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mills GE (2003) Action research: a guide for the teacher researcher, 2nd edn. Merrill Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parker PA, Baile WF, de Moor C, Lenzi R, Kudelka AP, Cohen L (2001) Breaking bad news about cancer: patients’ preferences for communication. J Clin Oncol 19:2049–2056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kirk P, Kirk I, Kristjanson LJ (2004) What do patients receiving palliative care for cancer and their families want to be told? A Canadian and Australian qualitative study. BMJ 328:1343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oksuzoglu B, Abali H, Bakar M, Yildirim N, Zengin N (2006) Disclosure of cancer diagnosis to patients and their relatives in Turkey: views of accompanying persons and influential factors in reaching those views. Tumori 92:62–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoff L, Hermeren G (2008) Information from physicians and retention of information by patients—obstacles to the awareness of patients of progressing disease when life is near the end. BMC Palliat Care 7:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silver HJ, Wellman NS (2002) Nutrition education may reduce burden in family caregivers of older adults. J Nutr Educ Behav 34:S53–S58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Atasoy BM, Ozgen Z, Yuksek Kantas O, Demirel B, Aksu A, Dane F et al (2011) Interdisciplinary collaboration in management of nutrition during chemoradiotherapy in cancer patients: a pilot study. Marmara Med J (in press)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Northouse LL, Mood D, Kershaw T, Scafenacker A, Mellon S, Walker J et al (2002) Quality of life women with recurrent breast cancer and their family members. J Clin Oncol 20:4050–4064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale EA, Kudelka AP (2000) SPIKES—a six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist 5:302–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lewin LO, Cole-Kelly K, Greenfield M (2001) A year-long course for third-year students on ethics, professionalism, and communication. Acad Med 76:511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Abacioglu U, Sarikaya O, Iskit S, Sengoz M (2004) Problem based integrated multidisciplinary program: clinical approach to cancer patients. J Cancer Educ 19:144–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sarikaya O, Uzuner A, Gulpinar MA et al (2004) Communication skills education in the University of Marmara Medical School. International Conference On Communication in Healthcare, Abstract Book, No. 2C-12.06Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sarikaya O, Gulpinar MA (2006) Marmara University School of Medicine lecture for communication skills and giving bad news. IV. National Medical Education Congress, Abstract Book, p. 59Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    McNeilly DP, Wengel SP (2001) The “ER” seminar teaching psychotherapeutic techniques to medical students. Acad Psychiatry 25:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Edinger W, Robertson JD, Skeel J, Div M, Schoonmaker J (1999) Using standardized patients to teach clinical ethics. Medical College of Ohio at Toledo. Med Educ Online, 4, 4Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ferrrell BR, Winn R (2006) Medical and nursing education and training opportunities to improve survivorship care. J Clin Oncol 24:5142–5148CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beste M. Atasoy
    • 1
  • Ozlem Sarikaya
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Kemal Kuscu
    • 3
  • Merve Yondem
    • 4
  • Elif Buyukkara
    • 4
  • E. Gokcen Eken
    • 4
  • Figen Kahyaoglu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyMarmara University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Medical EducationMarmara University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryMarmara University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Marmara University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations