Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 365–374 | Cite as

Determinants of Breast Self-Examination Performance Among Iranian Women: An Application of the Health Belief Model

  • Azita NorooziEmail author
  • Tayyebh Jomand
  • Rahim Tahmasebi


Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Screening behavior rates are low in the world. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate breast self-examination (BSE) rate and the relationships of Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs for predicting BSE. Path analysis was used to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of HBM factors on BSE in this population (N = 382). Data were collected by a part of Champion’s HBM Scale (CHBMS) and a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that 7.6% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. The final model provided a good fit to the data, with 13 variables explaining 62% of the variance in BSE. Perceived self-efficacy was intermediate construct between modifying factors and HBM constructs. Also, perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits were the most highly related to BSE. The results suggest that HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE in Iranian women.


Breast cancer Breast self-examination Health Belief Model (HBM) Iranian women 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azita Noroozi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tayyebh Jomand
    • 2
  • Rahim Tahmasebi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of HealthBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  2. 2.Department of NursingBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran

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