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Opioid-Associated Hearing Loss: A 20-Year Review from the New Jersey Poison Center

Abstract

Background

Opioid-associated ototoxicity is a known complication of opioid exposure, although the mechanism remains unclear. While historically most closely linked to heroin and oxycodone, evolving reports suggest that it may be a class effect of opioids. However, the evidence is limited to case reports.

Methods

A retrospective review of the New Jersey Poison Center records (ToxiCALL®) identified cases that included both hearing loss and recent opioid exposure between January 1, 1999, and September 21, 2018.

Results

Forty-one cases were identified, mean age 29.4 years, 51% (n = 21) were male. Reported heroin exposures comprised 51% (n = 22), 18 of which were heroin alone. The next most commonly cited opioids were oxycodone (n = 7), methadone, (n = 4), and tramadol (n = 3). Hearing loss was described as tinnitus in 24% of cases, hypoacusis in 37% of cases, deafness in 29% of cases, and mixed tinnitus/hypoacusis in 10% of cases. Only 34% (n = 14) of cases were associated with a potential hypoxic event. Of the cases that documented resolution data, 21% (n = 4 of 19) reported no improvement at time of hospital discharge.

Discussion

Opioid-associated ototoxicity appears to be a hypoxia-independent adverse effect since most of the reported cases did not involve a known contributory hypoxic event. It occurs with a wide array of opioids, which supports an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. The ototoxic effect may be self-limited in many patients.

Conclusion

Opioid-associated ototoxicity was most commonly associated with heroin exposure and appeared independent of hypoxic events. Further investigation that clarifies the risk factors and long-term outcomes is needed.

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Correspondence to Alexander M. Mozeika.

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Conflict of Interest

Authors Dr. Alexander Mozeika, Dr. Bruce Ruck, Dr. Lewis Nelson, and Dr. Diane Calello declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Rutgers Newark Health Sciences Institutional Review Board.

Previous Publications/Presentations

American College of Medical Toxicology, Annual Scientific Meeting 2019 – Lighting Oral Presentation.

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Mozeika, A.M., Ruck, B.E., Nelson, L.S. et al. Opioid-Associated Hearing Loss: A 20-Year Review from the New Jersey Poison Center. J. Med. Toxicol. 16, 416–422 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181-020-00785-5

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Keywords

  • Opioid
  • Ototoxicity
  • Hearing
  • Toxicology
  • Poison center