Skip to main content

A Particular Kind of Violence: Swedish Social Policy Puzzles of a Multipurpose Criminal Law

Abstract

This article explores the policy underpinning Sweden's 1999 ban on purchases of sexual services with a focus on the social and health service sectors and their role vis-à-vis people who sell sex. It argues that the rationale behind the ban is difficult to reconcile with legislation and practices beyond the merit of criminal justice. While an understanding of prostitution as “men's violence against women” may serve symbolic functions at central policy level, it can hardly guide local implementation without conflicting with core social policy principles. The article concludes that a there is a need to address the agency of people who sell sex, since denying or minimizing such agency may be counterproductive to the policy's own objectives.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. In addition, the government presents its view on various matters in action plans and other policy documents that may include assignments to government agencies. These are referred to as missives (skrivelser) in this text. Where relevant, introduction of new EU-related legislation follows a different process.

  2. However, as demonstrated by Eriksson (2011), the radical feminist argument on prostitution as violence against women was less significant to the political process leading up to the passing of the sex purchase ban. Rather, this idea was gradually established through the policy on gender equality.

  3. The ban was introduced as a separate law and transferred to the Penal Code (2005) after minor revisions.

  4. Preparatory work exemplifies this as alcohol and drugs. Cases of conviction include cigarettes, a cab ride, and food. Liability may be established when payment has been promised but not yet made and when the person who pays is someone else than the consumer (GoS report SOU 2010:49).

  5. The penalty was raised to allow for a more nuanced assessment of aggravating circumstances such as buying sex from someone who suffers from a psychiatric disability, is under the influence of drugs, etc. (GoS bill 2010/11:77).

  6. That is, if a person does not consent to provide a sexual service, obtaining it implies a different crime. In legal practice, the moment when the parties have entered into an agreement has been defined as the point at which an attempt becomes a criminal offense. However, prosecutors and the police have found this point difficult to prove (GoS report 2010:49).

  7. Gross violation of a woman's integrity (Grov kvinnofridskränkning).

  8. The government decided to criminalize sex purchases despite professing to the principle of using criminal justice as a last resort only, i.e., ultima ratio (GoS bill 1994/95:23).

  9. This position was also restated by the 2010 Skarhed Commission, albeit in the deliberations and proposals section and not as a starting point for its evaluation of the sex purchase ban (GoS report 2010:49).

  10. The 1993 inquiry which partly provided the basis for the Kvinnofrid bill extrapolated the total number of sex vendors and unknown cases from estimates of individuals known to be active in street prostitution.

  11. These include exclusion because questionnaires are available in Swedish only, underrepresentation of varying groups in the different study samples, a specific aversion to answering questions about sex sales, and possible differences in how men and women respond to such questions due to the impact of gendered norms.

  12. The three surveys found the following numbers of male and female respondents who reported having been paid for sex: eight of 1,475 males (0.5 %) and four of 1,335 females (0.3 %) (1996 survey); four of 296 males (1.4 %) and five of 436 females (1.1 %) (2007 survey); and 21 of 2,488 males (0.8 %) and 16 of 2,583 females (0.6 %) (2011 survey).

  13. The 1998 Kvinnofrid bill denotes male sex purchases, partner violence against women, female genital mutilation, and sexual harassment as “closely related” (p. 19). The 2002 government policy plan for gender equality (GoS missive 2002/03:140) refers to prostitution as a form of “men's sexualized violence against women” (p. 11). The 2005 bill on gender equality (2005/06:155) defined “men's violence against women” by clustering the above topics with the problem of sexual objectification of female and male bodies in public spaces (advertisement, etc.).

  14. Since 2006, the government broadly defines gender equality as the objective: “Women and men are to have equal power to shape society and their own lives” (GoS bill 2005/06:155, p.43). Gender equality was previously defined as women's and men's enjoyment of equal opportunities, rights, and obligations in all areas of life (GoS bill 1993/94:147, p.15).

  15. For example, in 2004, Mona Sahlin (then Minister for Democracy, Integration, and Gender Equality), made the point that calls for reviews of the effects of the laws against assault, robbery, and rape are unheard of while arguing against the need for such a review of the sex purchase ban (Sahlin 2004).

  16. The preceding inquiry (Könshandeln, GoS Report 1995a, b:15), further claims that women are only exceptionally able to exit the sex trade without lasting injuries. It maintains that those who sell sex almost invariably develop mental disorders, suffer from poor health, abuse alcohol/drugs, and are often subject to theft and abuse. The damage done to the community is thought to lie in the ability of men to purchase sexual access to women to gratify their own sexual needs. The inquiry also discussed health- and crime-related costs.

  17. In the ensuing consultation process, most government agencies opposed criminalization of both clients and providers, while about a third of those consulted recommended criminalizing only the clients (Eriksson 2011).

  18. Thus far, it has only happened when the person who provided the sexual service was simultaneously subject to some other crime in connection with the purchase (GoS Report 2010:49).

  19. The Swedish Prosecution Authority, however, expressed dissatisfaction with the proposed order of establishing from case to case whether a sex vendor should be regarded the injured party (GoS bill 2010/11:77).

  20. Under the Criminal Injuries Compensation Act, compensation for criminal injuries may apply to any crime victim when the offender is unable to pay, remains unidentified, or money cannot be retrieved from private insurance.

  21. Respondents who had previously sold sex reported a more positive view of prostitution than those who had not. The majority of sex vendors reported no drug use (86 % of male respondents and 81 % of female respondents). However, their drug use was higher than for nonsex vendors. Few sex vendors (none of the male respondent and 12.5 % of the female respondents) stated money for drugs as a motive for the most recent sex sale. There was no difference between female sex vendors and nonsex vendors with regards to childhood sexual abuse. However, male sex vendors reported a higher rate of childhood sexual abuse (Svedin and Priebe 2012).

  22. Sweden's 290 municipalities are responsible for the provision of social services, whereas the county's 20 county councils are responsible for health care provision. At central policy level, the National Board of Health and Welfare is the agency assigned to ensure quality aspects of these sectors across the entire country. This is expected to be achieved by providing supervision, information, maintenance of registers and statistics, and by setting both legally binding and recommended standards.

  23. In principle, consideration of specific groups entitled to provisions under the Social Services Act (Chapter 5) are secondary to the general right for all individuals who are unable to provide for their needs to be considered for assistance (Chapter 4, Section 1). Reflecting a similar sentiment, the Health and Medical Service Act does not specify groups of special provisions, with the exception of certain disabilities, generally dictating that priority should be given to those in greatest need (Art 2).

  24. The regulation can be applied to someone who has not yet turned 20 years old and the care must be terminated before she/he turns 21 years old (SoS 1997). The legal age of sexual consent under the Penal Code is 15 years.

  25. The individual circumstances surrounding the case determine whether there is a need for social services intervention. The selling of sex by a parent is not specified as neglect or abuse in welfare legislation (SoS 2011b).

  26. Furthermore, the Health and Medical Service Act includes a regulation regarding respect for patient's rights to self-determination and privacy (Art 2 a).

  27. The Social Services Act and the Communicable Diseases Act.

  28. So far, the NBHW has published three reports, Prostitution in Sweden 1998–1999, 2003, and 2007, all of which refrain from estimating the total number of people who sell sex in the country (SoS 1999, 2004 & 2008). The agency arranged two workshops in 2000 for the few social service units specializing in sex trade activities. The workshop themes were determined by the units themselves. In 2007, the NBHW was commissioned to inventory social interventions for people who sell sex. In 2008, 10 years after the Kvinnofrid bill, the NBHW was commissioned to both produce a training material for relevant professionals and evaluate the effects of sex trade-oriented work in the social services.

  29. A portion of this budget was allocated to work in collaboration with the Swedish Prosecution Authority.

  30. The Kvinnofrid bill launched a significant training program in the judicial as well as the welfare system which excluded prostitution. Additionally, provisions were added to the Social Services Act for female victims of partner violence (GoS Report 2005:66). The government mobilized all the powers of the NBHW in the area of domestic violence between 2007 and 2011, which included providing general recommendations and national inspections of social services.

  31. This lack of mandate also means that the units are not obliged to systematically document their work which complicates rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of their approaches.

  32. The prostitution units nonrandomly selected the clients of whom the majority claimed to have stopped selling sex before the intervention began. The study did not include a control group.

  33. Sex sales by men and teenage boys were surveyed by Svedin and Priebe (2004, 2009, 2012), Eriksson and Knutagård (2005), Kuosmanen (2008), Månsson (1998), Olsson (2007, 2010), Abelsson and Hulusjö (2008), and Statens Institutionsstyrelse (2011). Though much more limited, there is also data on sex purchases by women, e.g., Kuosmanen (2008); Svedin and Priebe (2011); Richert and Svensson (2009); Sandin et al. (2010); Larsdotter et al. (2011); and SoS (2008). In the 2011 population-based survey cited above only 0.1 % of female respondents aged 18-65 years (an estimated 2,900 women) reported having bought sex.

  34. For example, Hulusjö (2009) and Svennecke in Sahlin (January 24, 2008) and Westerberg and Ivarsson (March 3, 2009).

  35. According to Sweden's 2010 country progress report to UNAIDS, 18.5 % of sex-selling drug users stated that they used a condom when they last had sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of sex buyers and 43 % of sex vendors reported condom use when they last bought/sold sex in the 2011 population-based survey (Government Offices of Sweden 2010; Svedin and Priebe 2012).

  36. The Addiction Severity Index Interview is utilized in most municipalities. The study included data on 13,893 clients interviewed from 2001 to 2008. Eighty-eight respondents (0.6 %) stated recent income from prostitution which may also be interpreted as income from another person's prostitution, i.e., pimping.

  37. In the 1996 survey, 42%of female respondents (n = 1,475) and 19 % of male respondents (n = 1,475) stated that women who sell sex ought to be criminalized. In the 2007 survey, 66 % of female respondents (n = 436) and 49 % of male respondents (n = 296) agreed that the sale of sexual services should be prohibited by law. In the 2011 survey, 65 % of female respondents (n = 2,583) and 37 % of male respondents (n = 2,488) agreed to the same statement (Månsson 1998; Kuosmanen 2008; Svedin and Priebe 2012).

References

  • Abelsson, J. & Hulusjö, A. (2008). I sexualitetens gränstrakter—en studie av ungdomar i Göteborg med omnejd som säljer och byter sexuella tjänster, Göteborgs stad.

  • Åkerman, I. & Svedin, CG. (2012). Ett års kontakter med prostitutionsenheterna. En beskrivning av insatser till personer med prostitutionserfarenhet (FAST) samt insatser till personer med erfarenhet av att köpa sex/problematiskt sexuellt beteende (KAST). Lunds universitet. Linköpings universitet.

  • Armelius, B.-Å., & Armelius, K. (2010). Kartläggning av missbrukare som fått pengar från prostitution. Umeå: Institutet för klinisk psykologi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Claude, K. (2010). Targeting the sex buyer—the Swedish example: stopping prostitution and trafficking where it all begins. Stockholm: Swedish Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dodillet, S. (2009). Är sex arbete? Svensk och tysk prostitutionspolitik sedan 1970-talet. Stockholm: Vertigo Förlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, J. (2011). Strider om mening, En dynamisk frameanalys av den svenska sexköpslagen. Uppsala Universitet.

  • Eriksson, N., & Knutagård, H. (2005). Sexmänsäljer.se/x—nöje blir funktion.Rapportserie 2005:1. Malmö: RFSL Rådgivningen Skåne.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould, A. (2001). Sweden's law on prostitution: feminism, drugs and the foreign threat. Journal of Social Policy, 30(Part 3), 437–456.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1988). Bill 1987/88:147, Om tvångsvård av vuxna missbrukare m.m. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1990). Bill 1989/90:28, Vård i visa fall av barn och ungdomar. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1993). Bill 1993/94:147, Jämställdhetspolitiken: Delad makt—delat ansvar. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1995a). Bill 1994/95:23, Ett effektivare brottsmålsförfarande. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1995b). Report SOU 1995:15, Könshandeln, Betänkande av 1993 års prostitutionsutredning. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (1998). Bill 1997/98:55 Kvinnofrid. Stockholm:Fritzes.

  • Government of Sweden. (2003). Missive 2002/03:140, Jämt och ständigt—Regeringens jämställdhetspolitik med handlingsplan för mandatperioden. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (2005). Report SOU 2005:66, Makt att forma samhället och sitt eget liv—jämställdhetspolitiken mot nya mål. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (2006). Bill 2005/06:60, Nationell strategi mot hiv/aids och vissa andra smittsamma sjukdomar. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (2010). Report SOU 2010:49, Förbud mot köp av sexuell tjänst, En utvärdering 1999–2008. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Sweden. (2011). Bill 2010/11:77, Skärpt straff för köp av sexuell tjänst. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government Offices of Sweden. (2010). UNGASS country progress report 2010 Sweden.

  • Hulusjö, A. (2009). Sexköpslagen kan visa på maktens strukturer. Göteborgs-Posten, March 13.

  • Jakobsson, P. (2008). Mellan lögn och verklighet. Önskemål och behov bland sexarbetare i Finland och Sverige. Tammerfors: PRO-tukipiste.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, L. (2007). Dømt til rehabilitering. In (Ed.) Jessen, L. Det ideelle offer. Andre texter om prostitusjon (pp. 163–185). Oslo:Koloritt

  • Jonsson, L. & Svedin, CG. (2012). “Online är jag någon annan…” Unga kvinnor med erfarenhet att sälja sexuella tjänster online. Lunds universitet & Linköpings universitet.

  • Kjellgren, C. Priebe, G. & Svedin, CG. (2012). Utvärdering av samtalsbehandling med försäljare av sexuella tjänster (FAST). Lunds universitet & Linköpings universitet.

  • Kulick, D. (2005). Four hundred thousand Swedish perverts. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 11(2), 205–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuosmanen, J. (2008). Tio år med lagen. Om förhållningssätt och erfarenheter av prostitution i Sverige. In C. Holmström & M.-L. Skilbrei (Eds.), Prostitution i Norden, Forskningsrapport (pp. 357–381). Köpenhamn: Nordiska ministerrådet.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laanemets, L. (2007). Navet, Om kvinnor, prostitution, metadon och subutexbehandling. Mobilisering mot narkotika. Stockholm.

  • Larsdotter, S., Jonsson, J., & Gäredal, M. (2011). Osynliga, synliga aktörer. Hbt-personer med erfarenhet av att sälja och/eller köpa sexuella tjänster. Stockholm: RFSL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Larsson, L. (2009). Kommunalråd stoppar kondomer till sexsäljare. Skånska Dagbladet, January 27.

  • Lernestedt, C., & Hamdorf, K. (2000). Sexköpskriminaliseringen—till skydd av vad?—del I. Juridisk Tidskrift, 11(4), 846–858.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lernestedt, C., & Hamdorf, K. (2001). Sexköpskriminaliseringen—till skydd av vad?—del II. Juridisk Tidskrift, 12(1), 111–131.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levin, C. (2009). Socialt arbete för alla… Att nå och bemöta män som säljer sex. Paper in Sexology. Malmö: Malmö högskola.

    Google Scholar 

  • Månsson, S. A. (1998). Den köpta sexualiteten. In B. Lewin (Ed.), Sex i Sverige: Om sexuallivet i Sverige 1996 (pp. 233–259). Stockholm: Folkhälsoinstitutet.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. (2007). National strategy to combat HIV/AIDS and certain other communicable diseases, Fact Sheet, No 19.

  • Nytt Juridiskt Arkiv [Supreme Court reporter]. (2001). pp.527–33.

  • Olsson, N. (2007). När prostitutionen flyttade in i vardagsrummet. Malmö: Stadsdelsförvaltningen Centrum. Malmö Stad.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olsson, N. (2010). Handlar det om val? Sexhandeln via community, chatt och portal. Malmö stad.

  • Östergren, P. (2006). Porr, horor och feminister. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.

    Google Scholar 

  • Östergren. P. (Forthcoming). Den nya vågen. Om svensk frihet(lighet). Stockholm: Fri Tanke.

  • Pettersson, T., & Tiby, E. (2003). Skapande och återskapande av prostitution. In I. Lander, T. Pettersson, & E. Tiby (Eds.), Femininiteter, maskuliniteter och kriminalitet. Genusperspektiv inom svensk kriminologi (pp. 211–235). Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Google Scholar 

  • Regeringsrättens Årsbok 1982 1:20

  • Richert, T., & Svensson, B. (2009). HIV på institution. Projektrapport 2009. Stockholm: RFHL & Riksförbundet för HIV-positiva.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sahlin, M. (2004). Sexistisk reklam kan förbjudas i lag. Dagens Nyheter, DN Debatt, February 7.

  • Sahlin, K. (2008). Debatt [television broadcast]. Göteborg: Sveriges Television. Producer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sandin, N., Larsdotter, S., & Jonsson, J. (2010). Män som säljer sex till män, Kartläggning av tankar och känslor kring att sälja sex. Stockholm: RFSL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, M. (2011). Schymans lagförslag kan ge prostituerade 300 000 kronor i månaden, Newsmill, April 18. http://www.newsmill.se/artikel/2011/04/18/schymans-lagf-rslag-kan-ge-prostituerade-300-000-kronor-i-m-naden. Retrieved August 9, 2011.

  • Schyman, G. Waltman, M. MacKinnon, C.A. Borgström, C. Dingizian, E. Kram, E. Linna, E. Lundqvist-Brömster, M. Markström, E. Olsson, L. Pethrus Engström, D. Quarlsson, A. & Ramos-Ruggiero, L. (2008). Torskarna ska betala skadestånd till de prostituerade. Newsmill, November 3. http://www.newsmill.se/artikel/2008/11/03/torskarna-ska-betala-skadestand-till-de-prostituerade. Retrieved August 9, 2011.

  • Scoular, J. (2004). Criminalising ‘Punters’: evaluating the Swedish position on prostitution. The Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 26(2), 195–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siring, A. (2008). Sexhandel, sexköpslagstiftning och myndighetsförståelse. Ett svenskt exempel. In C. Holmström & M.-L. Skilbrei (Eds.), Prostitution i Norden, Forskningsrapport (pp. 327–356). Köpenhamn: Nordiska ministerrådet.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socialdepartementet. (2011). Bemyndigande att underteckna en överenskommelse om stöd till en evidensbaserad praktik. Protokoll 11:2, S2011/986/FST.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (1997). Allmänna råd om tillämpningen av lagen (1990:52) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga. SOSFS, 1997, 15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socialstyrelsen. (1999). Kännedom om prostitution 1998–99. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2003). allmänna råd om ekonomiskt bistånd. SOSFS, 2003, 5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2004). Kännedom om prostitution 2003. Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2006). God vård—om ledningssystem för kvalitet och patientsäkerhet i hälso-och sjukvården. Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2008). Kännedom om prostitution 2007. Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2010a). Socialstyrelsens yttrande över betänkandetFörbud mot köp av sexuell tjänst—en utvärdering 1999–2008 (SOU 2010:49). Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2010b). Kartläggning av verksamheter som kommer i kontakt med prostitution och människohandel för sexuella ändamål. Unpublished work report.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2011a). Sex mot ersättning—utbildningsmaterial om vuxna. Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen. (2011b). Sex mot ersättning—utbildningsmaterial om barn. Stockholm.

  • Socialstyrelsen/IMS. (2008). Interventioner mot prostitution och människohandel för sexuella ändamål—En systematisk kartläggning med kompletterande intervjuer av svenska insatser. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Socialstyrelsen/SKL. (2011). På väg mot en evidensbaserad praktik. Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Statens institutionsstyrelse. (2011). Slutrapport—uppdrag att förstärka arbetet med vuxna missbrukare och ungdomar som har varit, är eller riskerar att bli utsatta för prostitution eller människohandel för sexuella ändamål. Dnr 39-932-2008. Stockholm.

  • Statistics Sweden, SCB (2011). Sveriges befolkning efter kön och ålder 31 December 2010, http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____262459.aspx. Retrived December 26, 2011.

  • Stockholm stad. (2006). Socialt program för att minska prostitution 2006-07-01–2010-06-30. Stockholm: Socialtjänstförvaltningen Stockholm stad.

    Google Scholar 

  • Svanström, Y. (2004). Criminalising the John—a Swedish gender model? In J. Outshoorn (Ed.), The politics of prostitution: women's movements, democratic states, and the globalisation of sex commerce (pp. 225–244). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Svedin, C. G., & Priebe, G. (2004). Ungdomars sexualitet, attityder och erfarenheter. In Government of Sweden. Report SOU 2004:71 Sexuell exploatering av barn i Sverige. Stockholm: Fritzes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Svedin, C. G., & Priebe, G. (2009). Unga, sex och internet. In Ungdomsstyrelsen. Se mig, Unga om sex och internet (pp. 32–147). Stockholm: Ungdomsstyrelsen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Svedin, C. G. and Priebe, G. (2012). Sälja och köpa sex i Sverige 2011. Förekomst, hälsa och attityder. Lunds universitet. Linköpings universitet.

  • Träskman, P. O. (2005). Den som betalar för sex är en brottsling: om den svenska kriminaliseringen av sexköp som ett medel att motverka prostitution. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskap, 92(1), 73–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Truong, T.-D. (1990). Sex, money and morality. Prostitution and tourism in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • tv4nyheterna.se. (2007).En kille kan inte vara hora. November 22. www.nyheterna.se/1.214670/nyheter/2007/11/22/en_kille_kan_inte_vara_hora. Retrieved August 16, 2011.

  • Utrikesdepartementet. (2006). Sveriges internationella politik för sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa och rättigheter. Stockholm: UD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallberg, A. (2008). Sexsäljare vill betala skatt. Göteborgsposten. September 7.

  • Westberg, M., & Ivarsson, K. (2009). Studio Ett [radio news, P 1]. Sveriges Radio: Stockholm. Producers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westerstrand, J. (2011). Ge inte bort sexköpslagen till antifeminister.Newsmill, April 20. http://www.newsmill.se/artikel/2011/04/20/ge-inte-bort-sexk-pslagen-till-antifeminister. Retrieved August 9, 2011.

Download references

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to Professor Julia O'Connell Davidson and Sandra South for invaluable comments on previous versions of this article and Birgitta Resenius for helpful consultation while preparing it.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ola Florin.

Additional information

The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Board of Health and Welfare of Sweden

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Florin, O. A Particular Kind of Violence: Swedish Social Policy Puzzles of a Multipurpose Criminal Law. Sex Res Soc Policy 9, 269–278 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-012-0086-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-012-0086-1

Keywords

  • Criminal law
  • Social policy
  • Gender equality
  • Victimhood
  • Agency
  • Radical feminism