Reliable Overlay Networking on ETSI GeoNetworking Standards

  • Ye TaoEmail author
  • Xin Li
  • Manabu Tsukada
  • Hiroshi Esaki


A position-based routing vehicular ad hoc network (PBR-VANET) is a specific type of mobile ad hoc network where the vehicles are the nodes and the routing is determined on the basis of node positioning. However, PBR-VANET routing protocols suffer from mass packet loss due to frequent changes in topology. We discuss the requirements of the routing protocol and propose an overlay network protocol called Duplicated Unicast Packet Encapsulation (DUPE). The proposed protocol is compatible with the original GeoNetworking standard, and it can cooperate with existing implementations without modifications to either GeoNetworking infrastructures or user applications. It encapsulates a GeoNetworking packet in a BTP packet (a standard Layer 4 protocol in GeoNetworking) and duplicates the original packet into different paths to reduce packet loss caused by failure and outdated paths. The evaluations on DUPE in different scenarios show that, with reasonable latency and bandwidth overhead, the packet loss can be eliminated in certain scenarios, where the standard GeoNetworking protocol has a packet loss of up to 94.5% in the worst case. Real field simulations show that DUPE can improve the packet delivery ratio (PDR) by approximately 20% in real-world deployment.


Vehicular Ad-hoc networks Cooperative intelligent transportation systems GeoNetworking Routing protocols Open source software 


  1. 1.
    Action plan for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in Europe, European Commission Std., 2008, cOM(2008) 886 finalGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Standardisation mandate addressed to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of co-operative systems for intelligent transport in the european community, EUROPEAN COMMISSION Std., 2009Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO 21217:2010 Intelligent transport systems – Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) – Architecture, ISO CALM TC204 Std., 2010Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Communications Architecture, ETSI EN Std., 2010, eTSI EN 302 665 V1.1.1 (2010-09)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    IEEE 1609.0 Draft Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Architecture, IEEE Std., 2010Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirement, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Computer Society Std., 2010, iEEE Std 802.11p-2010Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4; Sub-part 1, Std., 2014. [Online]. Available:
  8. 8.
    Tao, Y., Tsukada, M., Li, X., Kakiuchi, M., Esaki, H.: Reproducing and extending real testbed evaluation of geonetworking implementation in simulated networks, pp 27–34. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharef, B. T., Alsaqour, R. A., Ismail, M.: Vehicular communication ad hoc routing protocols: A survey. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 40, 363–396 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karp, B., Kung, H. T.: Gpsr: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom 2000, pp 243–254. ACM / IEEE, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Naumov, V., Baumann, R., Gross, T.: An evaluation of inter-vehicle ad hoc networks based on realistic vehicular traces Proceedings of the 7th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, pp 108–119. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jerbi, M., Senouci, S. -M., Meraihi, R., Ghamri-Doudane, Y.: An improved vehicular ad hoc routing protocol for city environments, In: 2007. ICC’07. IEEE International Conference on Communications. IEEE, 2007, pp. 3972–3979Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fußler, H., Widmer, J., Käsemann, M., Mauve, M: Contention-based forwarding for mobile ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Networks (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Füßler, H., Hartenstein, H., Mauve, M., Effelsberg, W., Widmer, J.: Contention-based forwarding for street scenarios, In: 1st International workshop in intelligent transportation (WIT 2004), no LCA-CONF-2004-005 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 5; Sub-part 1, Std., 2014. [Online]. Available:
  16. 16.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 6; Sub-part 1, Std., 2014. [Online]. Available:
  17. 17.
    Toukabri, T., Tsukada, M., Ernst, T., Bettaieb, L.: Experimental evaluation of an open source implementation of IPv6 GeoNetworking, In: VANETs, In: ITST 2011: 11th International Conference on Intelligent Transport System Telecommunications. Saint-Petersburg, Russia (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tao, Y., Li, X., Tsukada, M., Esaki, H.: Dupe: Duplicated unicast packet encapsulation in position-based routing vanet, in 2016 9th IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2016, pp. 123–130Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 3, Std., 2014. [Online]. Available:
  20. 20.
    Krajzewicz, D., Erdmann, J., Behrisch, M., Bieker, L.: Recent development and applications of SUMO - Simulation of Urban MObility. Int. J. Adv. Syst. Measur. 5(3-4), 128–138 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations