Determining health-promoting behavior in smokers preparing to quit: a holistic and personalized approach
- 19 Downloads
Smoking cessation practices enable health professionals to identify lifestyle of their patients as an initial step to achieve predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the smoking habit and health-promoting behavior of patients who planned to quit smoking.
In this descriptive study, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) was implemented to current smokers admitted to smoking cessation outpatient clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Patients without any comorbidities were included. Sociodemographic variables, Fagerström dependency test, and smoking habit were recorded. Descriptive and analytical statistical evaluations were performed.
A total of 200 patients, 134 men (67%) and 66 women (33%) with a mean age of 34.49 ± 8.82, were included to the study. Among them, 90 (45%) were white collar, and 110 (55%) were blue-collar workers. Patients with BMI ≥ 25 were 126 (63%); Fagerström test score median was 7. Packages per year, dependency scores, the age the patients started smoking, and cigarettes smoked per day inversely correlated with health-promoting behavior. Our patients had high scores in spiritual growth and interpersonal relationships and had low scores in physical activity and stress management. Health-promoting behavior, health responsibility, self-actualization, and interpersonal relationships were less favorable in blue-collar workers than white-collar workers.
Smoking behavior affects especially physical activity and stress management in the study population preparing for smoking cessation. Health-promoting activities in smokers are influenced by occupation as well as dependency levels and smoking habits. Differences exist among white and blue-collar workers in health-promoting behavior. Defining and screening multiple health risk behavior in smokers empower predictive measures and targeted preventive medicine, such as maintaining healthy nutrition and leaving sedentary lifestyle along with efforts to quit smoking. Awareness about health-promoting behavior and thus identifying smokers who need lifestyle interventions can provide and attenuate a holistic and personalized approach in preventive medicine.
KeywordsHealth promotion Smoking cessation Preventive medicine Nutrition Physical activity
body mass index
Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II
DK and ADE designed the study and contributed to the data collection and data management. DK, ADE, and SA interpreted the results. DK wrote the paper. DK and ADE revised the paper. All authors reviewed the paper, provided significant feedback, and approved the final manuscript.
This article was not supported by any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital with the reference number 2016-525. All participants have provided written consent after a brief information.
- 4.Golubnitschaja O, Costigliola V, EPMA. General report & recommendations in predictive, preventive and personalised medicine 2012: white paper of the European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. EPMA J. 2012;3(1):14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1878-5085-3-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Fernald DH, Froshaug DB, Dickinson LM, Balasubramanian BA, Dodoo MS, Holtrop JS, et al. Common measures, better outcomes (COMBO): a field test of brief health behavior measures in primary care. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(5 Suppl):414–22.Google Scholar
- 10.Pronk NP, Peek CJ, Goldstein MG. Addressing multiple behavioral risk factors in primary care. A synthesis of current knowledge and stakeholder dialogue sessions. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(2 Suppl):4–17.Google Scholar
- 11.Pender NJ. Health promotion in nursing practice. 2nd ed. Norwalk: Appleton & Lange; 1987.Google Scholar
- 12.Walker SN, Sechrist KR, Pender NJ. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile: development and psychometric characteristics. Nurs Res. 1987;36(2):76–81.Google Scholar
- 13.Walker SN, Sechrist KR, Pender NJ. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Omaha: University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Nursing; 1995.Google Scholar
- 14.Bahar Z, Beşer A, Gördes N, Ersin F, Kıssal A. Sağlıklı yaşam biçimi davranışları ölçeği II’nin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi HYO Dergisi. 2008;12(1):1–13 Article in Turkish.Google Scholar
- 15.Wei CN, Yonemitsu H, Harada K, Miyakita T, Omori S, Miyabayashi T, et al. A Japanese language version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (article in Japanese). Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi Jpn J Hygiene. 2000;54(4):597–606.Google Scholar
- 18.Pullen C, Walker SN, Fiandt K. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in rural older women. Fam Community Health. 2001;24(2):49–72.Google Scholar
- 19.Küçükberber N, Ozdilli K, Yorulmaz H. Evaluation of factors affecting healthy life style behaviors and quality of life in patients with heart disease. Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi. 2011;11(7):619–26 Article in Turkish.Google Scholar
- 22.Mašina T, Madžar T, Musil V, Milošević M. Differences in health-promoting lifestyle profile among Croatian medical students according to gender and year of study. Acta Clin Croat. 2017;56(1):84–91.Google Scholar
- 27.Uysal MA, Kadakal F, Karşidağ C, Bayram NG, Uysal O, Yilmaz V. Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis. Tüberküloz ve Toraks. 2004;52:115–21 Article in Turkish.Google Scholar
- 32.Ozvurmaz S, Mandiracioglu A. Healthy lifestyle behavior of employees in small and medium-sized enterprises in Aydin, Turkey. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2017;33(2):404–10.Google Scholar
- 34.Şenol V, Ünalan D, Soyuer F, Argün M. The relationship between health promoting behaviors and quality of life in nursing home residents in Kayseri. J Geriatr. 2014;2014:8.Google Scholar
- 39.Mykletun A, Overland S, Aarø LE, Liabø HM, Stewart R. Smoking in relation to anxiety and depression: evidence from a large population survey: the HUNT study. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(2):77–84. Google Scholar