EPMA Journal

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 43–50 | Cite as

Innate immunity and oral microbiome: a personalized, predictive, and preventive approach to the management of oral diseases

  • Jack C. YuEmail author
  • Hesam Khodadadi
  • Babak BabanEmail author


Three recent advances in immunology, genetics, and microbiology have ushered in a new era in the continued efforts to better understand and treat oral diseases, moving ever closer to the three Ps of modern healthcare: personalized, predictive, and preventive medicine (PPPM). The discovery of now 15 subtypes of innate lymphoid cells, the refinement of DNA sequencing, and culture-independent characterization of the entire microbial community begin to reveal this complex adaptive network. All these advances warrant a systematic review as they have changed and will continue to change dental medicine. We will update dental professionals on these advances as related to oral diseases and associated pathologies in other organ systems such as premature labor, arthrosclerosis, and cancer. The five objectives are:
  1. 1.

    Introduce the concept of microbiota and microbiome

  2. 2.

    Explain how we study microbiota and microbiome

  3. 3.

    Describe the types and functions of innate lymphoid cells

  4. 4.

    Inventory the unique demands of the oral cavity

  5. 5.

    Provide a heuristic model to integrate the above

  6. 6.

    Conclusions and expert recommendations



Predictive preventive personalized medicine Oral diseases Oral microbiome Innate immunity Innovative strategies Oral tolerance Host defense Education System medicine 


Authors’ contributions

JCY contributed to the scientific conception, preparations, writing, and editing. HK participated in preparations and writing. BB contributed to the scientific conception, preparations, writing and editing as well as participated in the sequence alignment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethical approval

This article is a mini-review and does not contain any studies with human or animal performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s Hospital of Georgia, Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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