Composting is a sustainable method for converting organic wastes into organic amendments. However, the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, Nr, and CH4) and odorous elements/compounds are disadvantages of this procedure. This review focuses on the principles of composting, composting processes and methods, the role of microorganisms and invertebrates in composting, conventional composting processes, and factors affecting composting processes. The study showed that the fundamental factors that impact the composting process are oxygen, temperature, moisture, and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Composting aids in waste recycling and serves as a mechanism for reducing the deleterious impacts posed by geo-natural and anthropogenic factors through soils. It reduces the amount of waste discarded or landfilled and the amount of landfill leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. To ensure high performance of a composting process, optimum levels of moisture (40–60%), temperature (35–40 °C), particle size (3.1–12.7 mm), pH (5.5–8), and C/N (25:1–40:1) are required. Including components that take longer to compost, especially during co-composting, makes prolonged composting a challenge. Hence, to enhance compost quality, anti-bacterial, fungicides, anti-nematodes, and viricides from plant or organic sources can be added.
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Amuah, E.E.Y., Fei-Baffoe, B., Sackey, L.N.A. et al. A review of the principles of composting: understanding the processes, methods, merits, and demerits. Org. Agr. 12, 547–562 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-022-00408-z