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Factors affecting the adoption of organic rice farming: the case of farmers in M’lang, North Cotabato, Philippines


Sustainability, especially in agriculture, has been a growing concern worldwide. In the Philippines, self-sufficiency in rice production has been a major goal. Thus, increasing and intensifying production lessens the focus on sustainability policies. Nevertheless, there are still movements and efforts to counteract the adversities brought by industrial and intensive agriculture such as the development and promotion of sustainable farming systems including organic farming. Thus, this paper attempts to identify the factors that could influence the adoption of organic farming practices in rice production. Using probit regression, with dichotomous outcomes, the likelihood of organic rice adoption given the factors was estimated. Results indicate that females, farmers with higher education levels, those with longer experiences in rice production, small landholders, and those with low-cost per hectare have higher likelihoods in adopting organic rice farming. Moreover, the importance of extension services, NGOs, and private institutions in the intensification of organic production was also seen.

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This study was completed under the Department of Agriculture Region XI project, “Understanding constraints and opportunities to maximize contribution of seed quality to the goal of rice self-sufficiency in Region XI”. Also, the University of the Philippines Enhanced Creative Work and Research Grant has aided the completion of this study. The data used in the analysis for this research was from the dataset of Ms. Hazel Shayne I. Ramil for her undergraduate thesis. With this, the researchers are grateful to the abovementioned for allowing this study to be completed.


This research paper was completed under the funding of the Department of Agriculture, Region XI, Philippines, under the project “Understanding constraints and opportunities to maximize contribution of seed quality to the goal of rice self-sufficiency in Region XI”.

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Correspondence to Shemaiah Gail P. Placencia.

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The conduct of this study followed ethical standards. Moreover, human participation was in the form of surveys and interview with which they were willing to participate in.

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Digal, L.N., Placencia, S.G.P. Factors affecting the adoption of organic rice farming: the case of farmers in M’lang, North Cotabato, Philippines. Org. Agr. 9, 199–210 (2019).

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  • Organic rice
  • Probit regression
  • Adoption decision estimation