Exploration of essential oils as alternatives to conventional fungicides in lupin cultivation
- 105 Downloads
Lupin (Lupinus L.) has the potential to become a true alternative for soybean as protein source, especially in the more temperate regions in the world. However, diseases such as anthracnose (Colletotrichum lupini), gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), and root rot or brown spot (Pleiochaeta setosa) are important threats for lupin production, leading to yield and quality losses. Although conventional fungicides offer a solution to these problems, there is a growing interest in the use of alternative (biological) treatments. In this research, the applicability of four pure plant essential oils (clove oil, juniper oil, tea tree oil, and thyme essential oil) and timbor® (a Thymus vulgaris-derived plant extract) as alternatives for synthetic fungicides towards the lupin pathogens—C. lupini, B. cinerea, and P. setosa—was investigated. The anti-fungal effect of juniper oil was limited, whereas the other oils and timbor® clearly suppressed the growth and spore germination of all fungi. The in vitro experiments revealed that thyme essential oil and timbor® were most effective to inhibit conidial germination and mycelium growth. Furthermore, the results of the pot experiments demonstrated that these Thymus-derived compounds were able to suppress P. setosa brown spot and root rot symptoms. Additional trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of these compounds under field conditions. However, based on these in vitro and pot experiments, it can be concluded that pure essential oils and Thymus-derived plant extracts are promising anti-fungal agents, having the potential to become true alternatives for conventional fungicides in lupin cultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of plant-derived compounds to treat the main diseases affecting lupin production.
KeywordsEssential oils Lupin Fungi
The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical staff of the experimental farm (Bottelare).
- Audenaert K, Landschoot S, Vanheule A, Waegeman W, De Baets B, Haesaert G (2011) Impact of fungicide timing on the composition of the fusarium head blight disease complex and the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat. In: Thajuddin N (ed) Fungicides-beneficial and Harmfull aspects, INTECH, pp 79–98Google Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2016) Database collections. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed 6 Jan 2018
- Lucas ML, Stoddard FL, Annicchiarico P, Frías J, Martínez-Villaluenga C, Sussmann D, Duranti M, Seger A, Zander PM, Pueyo JJ (2015) The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe. Front Plant Sci 6:705Google Scholar
- Perina FJ, Amaral DC, Fernandes RS, Labory CR, Teixeira GA, Alves E (2015) Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thyme essential oil against Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler: effects on growth, viability, early infection and cellular mode of action. Pest Manag Sci 71(10):1371–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria URL: http://wwwR-projectorg/Google Scholar
- Sweetingham MW (1999) Low rates of dicarboximide seed treatment reduce brown spot in narrow-leafed lupin Australian journal of experimental. Agriculture 39(2):195–201Google Scholar
- Talhinhas P, Baroncelli R, Le Floch G (2016) Anthracnose of lupins caused by Colletotrichum Lupini: a recent disease and a successful worldwide pathogen. J Plant Pathol 98(1):5–14Google Scholar